English Grammar Complete Guide - Parts of Speech

English Grammar Complete Guide – Parts of Speech

DEFINITION OF PARTS OF SPEECH:

Words are divided into different kinds or classes, called Parts of Speech, according to their use; that is, according to the work they do in the sentence.
[ ইংরেজি ভাষায় যত রকমের Word বা শব্দ আছে তাদের আট ভাগে ভাগ করা যায়। এদের প্রত্যেকটিকে Parts of Speech  অর্থাৎ বাক্যাংশ বা পদ বলে। ]

 

KINDS OF PARTS OF SPEECH

The Parts of Speech are eight in number. They are –

  1. Noun  ( বিশেষ্য )
  2. Pronoun  ( সর্বনাম )
  3. Adjective  ( বিশেষণ )
  4. Verb  ( ক্রিয়া )
  5. Adverb  ( ক্রিয়া বিশেষণ )
  6. Preposition   ( সম্বন্ধসূচক অব্যয় )
  7. Conjunction  ( সংযোজক অব্যয় )
  8. Interjection   ( আবেগসূচক অব্যয় )
 

NOUN [ বিশেষ্য ]

Definition: Noun refers to a person, place, thing, or concept.
[ যে শব্দ বা পদ দ্বারা কোন ব্যক্তি, বস্তু বা স্থানের নাম বোঝানো হয় তাকে Noun বা বিশেষ্য পদ। অর্থাৎ, কোন নামবাচক পদকেই Noun বলে। ]

Examples: Tom, mon, man, woman, father, mother, boy, girl, nephew, niece, son, daughter, body, head, hair, eye, face, teeth, animal, bull, cow, dog, cat, flower, fruit, rose, lotus, mango, orange book, window, door, affection, anger, gift, beauty, day, night, teacher, etc.

Look at the sentences –

The flower is beautiful.
Ramesh is a student.

 

PRONOUN [ সর্বনাম ]

Definition: Pronoun replaces a noun or acts as a substitute (or antecedent) for a specific noun.
[ Noun বা বিশেষ্য পদের পরিবর্তে যে পদ ব্যবহার করা হয় তাকে Pronoun বা সর্বনাম পদ বলে। Pro = পরিবর্তে; Noun = বিশেষ্য]

Examples: we, me, us, my, our, mine, ours, myself, ourselves, you, your, yours, yourself, yourselves, he, she, him, her, his, himself, herself, it, itself, they, them, their, these, that, this, those, such, so, some, who, which, what, whom, etc.

Look at the sentences –

She is my sister.
I am 19 years old.

 

ADJECTIVE [ বিশেষণ ]

Definition: Adjective is a word used to modify or describe Nouns or Pronouns. ‘Adjective’ means adding.
[ যে সকল Word কোনো Noun বা Pronoun-এর দোষ, গুণ, সংখ্যা, অবস্থা, পরিমাপ, পরিমাণ, ইত্যাদি প্রকাশ করে তাদের Adjective বা বিশেষণ বলা হয়। ]

Examples: good, bad, honest, kind, beautiful, fat, hot, cold, old, bright, many, thin, blue, white, false, dark, rich, poor, glad, small, big, clean, dirty, clever, empty, dry, etc.

Look at the sentences –

The man is poor.
The mangoes are very sweet.

 

VERB [ ক্রিয়া ]

Definition: Verb describes an action or the act of being or having something.
[ যে সকল Word কোন কাজ করা বা হওয়া বোঝায় তাদের Verb বা ক্রিয়াপদ বলে। ]

Examples: see, run, sit, say, open, bring, sale, swim, speak, right, make, dance,  look, give, walk, read, drink, close, break, buy, play, work, start, dig, write, push, etc.

Look at the sentences –

Let us play.
She can sing.

 

ADVERB [ ক্রিয়াবিশেষণ ]

Definition: An Adverb adds information to a Verb, Adjective or another Adverb. It tells ‘how’, ‘when’, ‘where’ and ‘why’ an action is done.
[ যে সকল Wore কোন Verb বা Adjective বা অন্য কোন Adverb সম্বন্ধে আরও কিছু বলার জন্য ব্যবহৃত হয় তাদের Adverb বা ক্রিয়া বিশেষণ বলা হয়। ]

Examples: today, ago, late, always, daily, once, early, never, soon, tomorrow, have, far, near, inside, under, up, slowly, quickly, softly, probably, kindly, much, little, less, enough, most, once, twice, thrice, etc.

Look at the sentences –

She walks slowly.
He exercises daily.

 

PREPOSITION [ সম্বন্ধসূচক অব্যয় ]

Definition: A Preposition is a word that is placed before a Noun or Pronoun to show the relation of that Noun or Pronoun with any other word of the sentence.
[ যে সমস্ত Word কোন Noun বা Pronoun এর আগে বসে বাক্যের অন্য পদের সঙ্গে তাদের সম্বন্ধ স্থাপন করে তাদের Preposition বা সম্বন্ধসূচক অব্যয় বলে। ]

Examples: for, in, about, from, on, after, up, to, behind, down, with, by, of, before, over, behind, beside, since, etc.

Look at the sentences –

He fell on the floor.
We work by day, sleep at night.

 

CONJUNCTION [ সংযোজক অব্যয় ]

Definition: Conjunction connects thoughts. It joins words, phrases, or clauses.
[ যে সমস্ত Word একাধিক Word বা Sentence কে যুক্ত করে তাদের Conjunction বা সংযোজক অব্যয় বলে। ]

Examples: as, if, or, so, and, but, else, lest, till, than, still, though, either….or, neither….nor, because, etc.

Look at the sentences –

Tiya and Mini are best friends. 
I am well but he is ill.

 

INTERJECTION [ আবেগসূচক অব্যয় ]

Definition: An Interjection expresses emotion: it throws some sudden feeling.
[ যে সব Word দ্বারা ঘৃণা, ভয়, বিষাদ, আনন্দ, দুঃখ, আবেগ, প্রভৃতি প্রকাশ পায় তাদেরকে  Interjection বা আবেগসূচক অব্যয় বলে। ]

Examples: Ah, Aha, Alas, Hurrah, Ow, Hush, Oh, Bravo, Hallow, etc.

Look at the sentences –

Alas! The old man died.
Oh! It’s funny.

 

EXERCISE

A. Identify the Parts of Speech of the underlined words:

  1. Tom went to market to buy books .
  2. He went to the market but did not buy new books.
  3. I liked him better than he likes me.
  4. A smart girl was dancing quickly .
  5. She eats apples in the morning daily.
  6. When he was sitting on the grass, a snake bit him.
  7. You caught him by his arm.
  8. A rich lady bought a beautiful  necklace.
  9. Hurrah!  I have passed the examination.
  10.  The cat is sitting under the chair.
  11.  Alas! I could not receive you.
  12.  The body of the cage is made of iron.
  13.  It is not your pen; it is hers.
  14.  There is still some milk in the jug.
  15.  Jimmy is performing his duties diligently.
  16.  The drawing made by you is almost perfect.
  17.  I shall not go unless you allow.
  18.  The road is to go by.
  19.  The flowers smell sweet.
  20.  He frequently goes to the beach.

B. Fill in the blanks with appropriate Parts of Speech:

  1. _________ is a good boy.
  2. Ruma is his __________.
  3. We live in Kolkata. ________ is a big city.
  4. Pranay takes chocolates from ________ mother.
  5. Vidyasagar was a ________ man.
  6. Chillies are ________.
  7. The ________ boy came last.
  8. He _______ a song.
  9. She ________ across the Ganges.
  10.  He has gone too _________.
  11.  Talk to everyone _________.
  12.  The dog came _________ me.
  13.  The cup is _______ the table.
  14.  I am poor ________ not greedy.
  15.  _______! We win.

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