English Grammar Complete Guide - Sentences Functions

English Grammar Complete Guide – Sentences & Kinds

What is a Sentence?

A Sentence is a word or a group of words giving a complete sense. 
(যে শব্দ বা শব্দসমষ্টি একটি পূর্ণ অর্থ প্রকাশ করে তাকে Sentence বা বাক্য বলা হয়।)

In the following examples, the groups of words on the left are not sentences, because they do not make complete sense; but those on the right do so, and hence, they are sentences:

Did itI did it.
Can doI can do it.
A good boyHe is a good boy.

* A sentence may be single-worded or multi-worded in a given context.
(কোনো প্রসঙ্গে একটি বাক্য একপদবিশিষ্ট বা বহুপদবিশিষ্ট হতে পারে।)

* In Modern Grammar single-worded sentences and verbless sentences are acceptable.
( একপদবিশিষ্ট বাক্য এবং verb – হীন বাক্য আধুনিক গ্রামারে গ্রহণযোগ্য। )

Examples:

Teacher: Have you done your home task? (Multi-worded sentence)
Student: Yes. (Single-worded sentence)
Teacher: All right. (Verbless sentence)

Some other single-worded sentences :

Assertive sentence: Yes. No. Certainly. Impossible. etc.
Imperative sentence: Come. Look. Halt. Stop. Wait. etc.
Interrogative sentence: Why? Where? What? etc.
Exclamatory sentence: Good! Bravo! Hurrah! etc.

Some other verbless sentences: Not at all. Not yet. Why not? So what? etc.

 

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

A multi-worded sentence with a verb may be divided into two parts:

a) Subject or Noun Part (উদ্দেশ্য বা নাম খণ্ড)
b) Predicate or Verb Part (বিধেয় বা ক্রিয়া খণ্ড)

(a) The Subject is a word, or a group of words, that denotes the person or thing about whom or which something is said. (যার সম্বন্ধে বা যাকে উদ্দেশ্য করে কিছু বলা হয় তাকে উদ্দেশ্য বলে।) The Subject part of the sentence consists of Nouns, Pronouns, or Adjectives. (Subject বা উদ্দেশ্য খণ্ডে থাকে Noun, Pronoun বা Adjective)

(b) The Predicate is a word or a group of words, that denotes what is said about the Subject. (Subject সম্বন্ধে যা বলা হয় তাকে Predicate বা বিধেয় বলে।). The Predicate part of the sentence consists of Finite Verbs, Objects/Complements, Adverbials, and Modifiers. ( Predicate বা বিধেয় খণ্ডে থাকে Finite Verbs, Objects/Complements, Adverbials, and Modifiers.

Examples :

SubjectPredicate
Ramsings.
Heis ill.
My fatheris at home.

উপরের প্রত্যেকটি sentence-এর দুইটি অংশ। বামদিকের অংশে কোনাে ব্যক্তি বা বিষয়ের উল্লেখ আছে, আর ডানদিকের অংশে সেই ব্যক্তি বা বিষয় সম্বন্ধে যা বলা হচ্ছে তার উল্লেখ আছে। প্রথম অংশকে Subject এবং দ্বিতীয় অংশকে Predicate বলে।

 

TYPES OF SENTENCES

Sentences may be divided into five classes :

(i) Assertive (সাধারণ বর্ণনাত্মক): These sentences make simple statements.
(এইসব বাক্যে কোনাে কিছু সাধারণভাবে ব্যক্ত করা হয়।)

Examples:

I know him.
He reads in class X.

(ii) Interrogative (প্রশ্নবােধক): These sentences ask questions. 
(এইসব বাক্য দ্বারা কোনাে প্রশ্ন জিজ্ঞাসা করা হয়। )

Examples:

What are you doing?
Will he come?

(iii) Imperative (আদেশ, উপদেশ, অনুরােধমূলক): These sentences express commands, requests, etc.
(এইসব বাক্যে কোনাে আদেশ, উপদেশ, অনুরােধ ইত্যাদি বােঝায়। )

Examples:

Go away from here.
Please tell me your name.

(iv) Optative ( ইচ্ছাবোধক ): These sentences express wishes, prayers, etc. 
(এইসব বাক্য কোনাে ইচ্ছা, প্রার্থনা, আশীর্বাদ প্রভৃতি প্রকাশ করে).

Examples:

May he live long.
Heaven helps us.

(v) Exclamatory ( আবেগসূচক ): These sentences express sudden feelings or emotions.
(এইসব বাক্য দুঃখ, আনন্দ বা মনের কোনাে আকস্মিক আবেগ প্রকাশ করে। )

Examples:

Alas! he is no more.
What a fool you are!

These five types of sentences are again divided into two types :

1. Affirmative (হ্যাঁবাচক)  
2. Negative (
নাবাচক)

Affirmative sentences are those that affirm something and Negative sentences are those that negate or deny something.

Kinds of SentencesAffirmativeNegative
AssertiveHe is an Indian citizen.He is not an Indian citizen.
InterrogativeDoes he take tea?Does he not take tea?
ImperativeSit down on the chair.Do not sit down on the chair.
OptativeMay you prosper in life.May he not suffer in life.
ExclamatoryHurrah! We have succeeded at last.Alas! We have not succeeded at last.
 

FUNCTIONS OF SENTENCES

A) Assertive / Declarative :

FUNCTIONS SENTENCES
(i) Giving information/ Reporting (তথ্যজ্ঞাপন / প্রতিবেদন)The Second Hooghly Bridge was inaugurated on October 10 in 1992.
(ii) Narrating ( পরোক্ষ উক্তি)He said that Napoleon died at St. Helena.
(iii) Describing (বর্ণনা)There are rows of trees on both sides of the road.
(iv)Defining ( সংজ্ঞা দেওয়া)Fables are short tales usually with animal characters in them, but always with a moral.
(v) Hesitating / Giving opinion, not confidently (দ্বিধা প্রকাশ)I don’t know what exactly he or she is.  
(vi) Classifying (শ্রেণিকরণ)Food substances may be classified into two broad groups-organic food and inorganic food.
(vii) Illustrating / Exemplifying (উদাহরণের সাহায্যে বিশদীকরন)Some of the best Science Fiction writers are H.G. Wells, Jules Verne, and Arthur C Clarke.
(viii) Stating cause (কারণ বর্ননা)His hard labour placed him in a high position.
(ix) Describing a process (পদ্ধতি বর্ননা)The preparation of butter goes through a number of steps.
(x) Denying a fact (অস্বীকৃতি)No, I’m all right.
(xi) Asserting a fact (দৃঢ়ীকরণ)Yes, Sir, I am a book-binder.
(xii) Expressing obligation (বাধ্যতা)I must go home.
(xiii) Supposing / Guessing ( সম্ভাবনা / অনুমান)If he comes, he may receive a hearty welcome.
(xiv) Comparing ( তুলনা করা)He is as cunning as a fox.
(xv) Contradicting (বৈপরীত্য বোঝানো)I don’t worry but I can’t keep from thinking.
(xvi) Apologizing / Confessing (ক্ষমা চাওয়া)I beg your pardon, I have hurt your feelings.
(xvii) Expressing abilityI can do the sum easily.
(xviii) Expressing possibilityHe may come here today.
(xix) Giving permissionYou may sit in the parlour.
(xx) Appealing (আবেদন)I pray to you kind self for granting me three days’ sick leave.

B) Interrogative :

FUNCTIONSSENTENCES
(i) Asking information / Asking reason / Interrogating / Enquiring (তথ্য চাওয়া / প্রশ্ন করা)What is the distance between Delhi from Kolkata?
(ii) Asserting a fact (বক্তব্যকে দৃঢ় করা)That was really a bit of fun. Wasn’t it?
(iii) Asking for opinion (মত চাওয়া)May I have your opinion on the book?
(iv) Asking for permissionMay I come in, sir?
(v) Requesting (অনুরোধ করা)Could you please tell me your name?
(vi) Challenging (স্পর্ধার সঙ্গে প্রশ্ন করা)Who dares to defy me?
(vii) Expressing a doubt (সন্দেহ প্রকাশ করা)Who knows when the country will be free from corruption?
(viii) Seeking confirmation of a doubt (সন্দেহ নিরসন করা)The science you have learned is more or less the result of self-teaching, isn’t it, Mr. Faraday?

C) Imperative :

FUNCTIONSSENTENCES
(i) Ordering / Commanding (আদেশ করা)Get out at once.
(ii) Requesting (অনুরোধ করা)Please give me a glass of water.
(iii) Advising (উপদেশ দেওয়া)Don’t give up hope, Mr. Faraday.
(iv) Suggesting/Proposing (প্রস্তাব দেওয়া)Let’s sit down here and talk the matter over.
(v) Instructing (নির্দেশ দেওয়া)To improve your English read as much as you can.
(vi) Warning (সতর্ক করা)Be quiet or I’ll punish you.
(vii) Threatening (ভীতি প্রদর্শন করা)Get out or I’ll break your nose.
(viii) Permitting (অনুমতি দেওয়া)Go wherever you like but come back before evening.
(ix) Prohibiting (নিষেধ করা)Don’t leave the place without permission.
(x) Reminding (পুনরায় স্মরণ করিয়ে দেওয়া)Kindly remember the date and time of our meeting.

D) Optative :

FUNCTIONSSENTENCES
(i) Wishing/Desiring (ইচ্ছা প্রকাশ করা)Wish you good luck.
(ii) Praying (প্রার্থনা করা)May God bless you.

E) Exclamatory :

FUNCTIONSSENTENCES
(i) Expressing joy (আনন্দ প্রকাশ করা)Hurrah! Our club has won the trophy.
(ii) Expressing sorrow (দুঃখ প্রকাশ করা)Alas! The man is dead.
(iii) Expressing wonder (বিস্ময় প্রকাশ করা)What a nice bird it is!
(iv) Expressing pity (করুণা প্রকাশ করা)Poor fellow! How changed you are.
(v) Expressing disgust (বিরক্তি প্রকাশ করা)How shabby the statue is!
(vi) Encouraging (উৎসাহ দেওয়া)Bravo! You have saved a nice goal.
(vii) Greeting (স্বাগত সম্ভাষন)Hello! How nice to meet you after years.
(viii) Farewell (বিদায় সম্ভাষন)Goodbye!/Good night! Hope we’ll meet you again.
 

EXERCISE

1. Tick the groups of words that are sentences. ()

(i) This is an interesting exercise. ( )

(ii) JK Rowling is a famous author. ( )

(iii) During the holidays ( )

(iv) The tiger is an endangered animal. ( )

(v) near the Parliament House ( )

(vi) twice a week ( )

(vii) I have been learning dance for the last three years. ( )

(viii) Harsh is the new captain of the school football team. ( )

(ix) favorite singer ( )

(x) green hills and gurgling streams ( )

2. Separate the Subject and the Predicate in the following sentences:

i) The boy stood on the last bench.

ii) She has a good memory.

iii) My father got a promotion.

iv) Delhi is the capital of India.

v) It is a very cold day.

vi) James has a good memory.

vii) No man can serve two masters.

viii) A good boy passed the examination.

ix) We cannot make the ocean dry.

x) A healthy body leads to a healthy mind.

xi) The sea has many varieties of fish.

xii) Edison invented the phonograph.

xiii) The singing of the birds makes me happy.

xiv) No man can serve two masters.

xv) A bus passed our house.

3. Identify the types of sentences.

i) Do you like pastries?

ii) This is not my cup of tea.

iii) It is a very dirty room.

iv) What a gigantic ship!

v) May God bless us all.

vi) What a horrible sight it was!

vii) Long live the king of Westeros.

viii) Have some mercy upon us.

ix) Who is at the door?

x) Stand up.

xi) Dancing is my hobby.

xii) December is the last month of the year.

xiii) May the almighty help in this tragedy!

xiv) Shut the door.

xv) What is your name?

xvi) Don’t make a noise.

xvii) Please let me work.

xviii) Wish you a very successful married life.

xix) What a shame!

xx) They have not done it.

xxi) What a melodious song!

xxii) Where do you live?

xxiii) Children like sweets.

xxiv) Wish you a happy journey together.

xxv) Please help the flood victims.

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