English Grammar Complete Guide - Nouns

English Grammar Complete Guide – Nouns

DEFINITION OF NOUN:

আমরা আগেই শিখেছি, Noun is a naming word. অর্থাৎ যে Word-এর দ্বারা কোনাে কিছুর নাম বোঝায় তাকে Noun বলে।

এবার Noun-এর শ্রেণিবিভাগ এবং Noun সম্বন্ধে আরও কিছু তথ্য জানতে হবে।

 

Nouns are of five different kinds:

1. Proper Noun (বিশেষ নাম)
2. Common Noun (জাতিবাচক নাম)
3. Collective Noun (সমষ্টিবাচক নাম)
4. Material Noun (বস্তুবাচক নাম)
5. Abstract Noun (গুণ বা ভাববাচক নাম)

1. Proper Noun

A Proper Noun is the name of one particular person, place, thing, or event (or group of persons or places) as distinct from every other.

(Proper Noun দ্বারা একটি নির্দিষ্ট প্রাণী, জায়গা, বস্তু বা ঘটনার নিজস্ব নাম বােঝায়।)

Example: Ramesh, the Ganga, Kolkata, the French Revolution

2. Common Noun

A Common Noun denotes no one person or thing in particular but is common to any and every person or thing of the same kind.

[Common Noun দ্বারা এক জাতীয় প্রাণী বা বস্তুর কোনাে নির্দিষ্ট একটিকে না বুঝিয়ে তাদের সকলকেই বােঝায় (Common = সাধারণ)।]

Examples:
man (not any particular man, but any and every man)
book (not any particular book like the Bible, the Vedas, the Koran, etc., but any and every book).
river (not any particular river like the Ganga, the Jamuna, but any and every river).
country (not any particular country, but any and every country) are Common Nouns.

Difference between Proper Noun and Common Noun (Proper Noun e Common Noun-এর মধ্যে পার্থক্য ) :

City বলতে আমরা যে কোনাে শহরকেই বােঝাই। কিন্তু Kolkata বলতে আমরা কেবলমাত্র Kolkata city-কেই বােঝাই। এই ক্ষেত্রে City-Common Noun;  কিন্তু Kolkata- Proper Noun. এইরূপ –

Proper NounCommon Noun
The Gangariver
The Gitabook
Indiacountry
Mondayday
B. T. Roadroad

** There are a few Nouns, generally classed as Common, which are sometimes called Singular Nouns, because there is only one of each of them known to us: earth, sun, moon, etc.

* When God and Lord refer to the Almighty, they are Proper Noun; but when they refer to the different Gods of mythology and temporal lords, they are Common Noun.

3. Collective Noun

A Collective Noun is the name of a group or collection of persons or things taken as a whole.

(যে word দ্বারা একই প্রকারের অনেকগুলি প্রাণী বা জিনিষের সমষ্টি বোঝায়, স্বতন্ত্রভাবে তাদেরকে বোঝায় না, তাকে Collective Noun বলে।)

Thus, in “a flock of sheep” “sheep” is a Common Noun, because it stands for any and every sheep; but the flock is a Collective Noun because it stands for all the sheep referred to, taken together, and not anyone sheep taken separately. Similarly, in “an army of soldiers”, “a crowd of people”, army and crowd are Collective Nouns, as they stand respectively for all the soldiers and people referred to, taken together.
(“Flock of sheep” এই বাক্যাংশে “sheep” কথাটি Common Noun, কারণ সেটি ভেড়ার সাধারণ নাম; কিন্তু flock কথাটি collective Noun, কারণ তা কতকগুলি ভেড়ার সমষ্টিকে বোঝাচ্ছে। এইরূপ, Crowd of men”, “Army of soldiers” বাক্যাংশে crowd ও army Collective Nouns. কারণ এরা যথাক্রমে men ও soldiers-এর সমষ্টিকে বোঝাচ্ছে।)

A LIST OF COLLECTIVE NOUNS

An army or regiment of soldiers
A band of robbers, musicians
A bouquet of flowers
A bevy of beauties, women
A bundle of rags, sticks, firewood, lies
A bunch of keys, grapes, flowers
A brood of chickens
A board of directors
A chain of events, mountains
A class of students, persons
A clump of trees
A cloud of locusts
A cluster of grapes, islands, stars
A consignment of goods
A course of lectures
A crew of sailors
A crowd of people
A curriculum of studies
A fleet of ships
A flight of birds or steps
A flock of sheep (generally small animals), geese
A gang of thieves, robbers
A galaxy of stars
A group of islands
A grove of trees
A herd of cattle (generally big animals), deer, elephants
A hive of bees
A heap or mass of ruins
A horde or tribe of Arabs
A litter of pups, pigs
A pack of hounds, wolves, cards, thieves, liars, lies
A pair of shoes
A pile of books
A range of mountains
A series of events
A stack of hay, wood
A shoal of fish
A shower of rain, arrows
A swarm of bees or flies
A suit of clothes

4. Material Noun

A Material Noun denotes the matter or substance of which the things are made.

[কোনোবস্তু যে জিনিস দ্বারা গঠিত হয় তাকে অর্থাৎ বস্তুর উপাদানকে Material Noun বলে।]

Thus, the river is a Common Noun, but water, of which it is made, is a Material Noun; sheep is a Common Noun, but mutton, the flesh of a sheep, is a Material Noun. The tree is a Common Noun but wood is a Material Noun. The ring is a Common Noun but gold is a Material Noun.

5. Abstract Noun

An Abstract Noun is usually the name of a quality, action or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs.

[Abstract Noun হল বস্তু-নিরপেক্ষ গুণ, কাজ বা অবস্থার নাম।]

Examples:
Quality –  kindness, brightness, honesty, beauty, bravery, wisdom, etc.
Action – laughter, movement, judgement, etc.
State – boyhood, childhood, youth, slavery, etc.

FORMATION OF ABSTRACT NOUNS

Abstract Nouns formed from Adjectives :

AdjectiveAbstract Noun
bravebravery
honesthonesty
darkdarkness
kind kindness
deepdepth
longlength
false falsehood
shortshortage
greatgreatness
truetruth
highheight
 wide width

Abstract Nouns formed from Common Nouns :

Common NounAbstract Noun
agent agency
boyboyhood
child childhood
friendfriendship
hero heroism
kingkingship
mothermotherhood
priestpriesthood

Abstract Nouns formed from Verbs :

VerbAbstract Noun
enterentrance
fallfailure
admit admission
agreeagreement
behave behaviour
believebelief
die death
growgrowth
obeyobedience
think thought
 

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

In Modern English Grammar Nouns are broadly divided into two categories (a) Countable Noun, (b) Uncountable Noun.

[আধুনিক ইংরেজি ব্যাকরণে Noun-গুলিকে আবার Countable এবং Uncountable এই দুই প্রধান ভাগে ভাগ করা হয়।]

(a) Countable nouns stand for something that can be counted (যা এক, দুই করে গণনা করা যায়)

Examples: boy, egg, school, man, tree, house, etc.

Only, countable nouns have plural forms and can be used with the article in the singular or many, few, a few, several, etc. in the plural : (Countable singular noun- এর পূর্বে a, an, এবং plural noun-এর পূর্বে many, few, a few, several ইত্যাদি বসে।)

Examples: a school, a boy, an umbrella, many cows, a few books.

(b) Uncountable nouns stand for something that cannot be counted though they can be measured (যা এক, দুই করে গণনা করা যায় না কিন্তু যা পরিমাপ করা যায়) :

Examples: water, air, glass, wood, sand, etc.

Such nouns have no plural form and are not used with the article. (এদের কোনাে plural form নেই এবং এদের পূর্বে a বা an বসে না।). They are preceded by much, little, etc. (এদের পূর্বে much, little ইত্যাদি ব্যবহৃত হয়) to denote amount or quantity.

Examples: much money, little water.

** Some of these can, however, be both countable and uncountable according to the context in which they are used, with a change in their meaning. ( কোনো কোনো ক্ষেত্রে এরা countable এবং uncountable উভয়ভাবেই ব্যবহৃত হতে পারে। সেক্ষেত্রে তাদের অর্থ ভিন্ন প্রকারের হয়।)

paper = the substance on which we write (uncountable) – কাগজ
a paper = a newspaper (countable) – খবরের কাগজ

glass = the material (uncountable) – কাঁচ
a glass = a tumbler (countable) – কাঁচের গ্লাস

wood = The table is made of wood. (material, uncountable) — কাঠ
a wood = forest (বন). The bungalow is in the middle of a wood. (countable)

copper = metal (uncountable) — তামা ধাতু
a copper = coin (countable) – টাকা, পয়সা

LIST OF UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS USED AS COUNTABLE

Material Noun-এর পূর্বে সাধারণত সংখ্যাবাচক শব্দ বসে না। যেমন, আমরা ‘চারটি দুধ’ বলতে পারি না। কিন্তু এর পূর্বে একটি Countable Noun যোগ করে আমরা সংখ্যাবাচক শব্দ বসাতে পারি। আমরা বলতে পারি ‘চার বোতল দুধ’– four bottles of milk.

A bag of sugar – এক ব্যাগ চিনি
Two bags of sugar – দু ব্যাগ চিনি
Many bags of sugar – বহু ব্যাগ চিনি
Many more bags of sugar – আরও বহু ব্যাগ চিনি
A few bags of sugar – কয়েক ব্যাগ চিনি
Many packets of salt – অনেক প্যাকেট নুন
A few boxes of bread – কয়েক বাক্স রুটি
Several bottles of honey – কয়েক বোতল মধু
Two tons of coal – দু টন কয়লা
Three pieces of bread – তিন খণ্ড রুটি
Four kilos of flour – চার কিলো ময়দা
Five liters of petrol – পাঁচ লিটার পেট্রল
Six bottles of milk – ছয় বোতল দুধ
Seven bales of cotton – সাত গাঁট তুলো
Eight phials of medicine – আট শিশি ওষুধ
Nine boxes of milk powder – নয় বাক্স গুড়ো দুধ
Ten wagons of limestone – দশ ওয়াগন চুনাপাথর

When full is added to a Countable Noun, it becomes ful.(Countable Noun- এর সঙ্গে ‘full’ যোগ করলে ‘ful’ হয়ে যায়।)

A bagful of sweets – এক ব্যাগ মিষ্টি
A spoonful of sugar – এক চামচ চিনি
Three spoonfuls of salt – তিন চামচ নুন।

Countable Nouns forming a Collective Noun

A band of pilgrims – তীর্থযাত্রীর দল
A batch of students – একদল ছাত্র
A board of directors – ডাইরেক্টরদের বোর্ড
A bunch of keys – চাবির গোছা
A bundle of pencils – এক বান্ডিল পেন্সিল
A chain of mountains – পর্বতমালা
A cluster of words – শব্দসমষ্টি
A collection of rare books – দুষ্প্রাপ্য বইয়ের সংগ্রহ
A crew of sailors – এক দল নাবিক
A crowd of passengers – যাত্রীদের ভিড়
A fleet of ships – একটি পোতবহর
A flock of birds – এক ঝাক পাখি
A galaxy of talents – প্রতিভাবানদের উজ্জ্বল সমাবেশ
A gang of robbers  – একদল ডাকাত
A gathering of people – জনসমাবেশ
A heap of files – ফাইলের স্তূপ
A herd of cows/deer – একপাল গোরু/একপাল হরিণ
A pack of hounds – শিকারী কুকুরের দল
A pile of books – একগাদা বই
A shoal of fish – মাছের ঝাক
A squad of homeguards – হোমগার্ডের দল
A swarm of bees – একঝাক মৌমাছি
A troop of soldiers – একদল সৈন্য
A volley of arrows/questions – একঝাক তির/প্রশ্ন

 

EXERCISE

1. Underline the noun from sentences given below:

i) Ram is playing.
ii) He is going to watch a movie.
iii) She went for a picnic.
iv) Akshay Kumar is a versatile actor.
v) Taj Mahal is very beautiful.
vi) Sonu and Robin are close friends.
vii) The dog barks.
viii) Diwali is my favourite festival.
ix) Amazon is a multinational company.
x) I had visited Switzerland last month. 

2. Pick out the Nouns in the following sentences and say whether they are Proper, Common, Material, Collective, or Abstract.

i) The case was decided by a bench of judges.
ii) Rusting iron is a type of corrosion.
iii) The Parliament house is in Delhi.
iv) Mumbai is the finance capital of India.
v) Kolkata is a beautiful city.
vi) A company hires a group of employees for its project.
vii) They are going to Australia.
viii) A team of professionals has derived a solution for their organization.
ix) I think you are missing your mother.
x) Can you please help Riya with her project?
xi) He has lost the battle.
xii) My family consists of five members.
xiii) A regiment of soldiers completed their mission successfully.
xiv) A team of good players encourages everyone in the team.
xv) Mumbai is a big city.
xvi) Tubal Cain was a man of might.
xvii) Old habits die hard.
xviii) The early bird catches the worm.
xix) Wisdom is better than strength.
xx) The table is made of steel.

3. Make an abstract noun of the following words.

i) Scarce, live, descend,
ii) Patriot, clear, attend
iii) Sit, bury, behave
iv) Author, thief, born
v) Deep, friend, move
vi) False, busy, private
vii) Apply, proud, avoid
viii) Child, cheap, equal

4. Fill in the blanks with the nouns form of the words given in the brackets.

i) A slave knows no ………………. (free)
ii) He accepted our ……………. (invite)
iii) Books are a storehouse of ……………….. (know)
iv) …………… is nearest to godliness. (clean)
v) My friend was awarded for his …………. (brave)
vi) …………. is nine days wonder. (beautiful)

5. Read the following sentences. Underline the countable nouns and circle the uncountable nouns.

(i) He stored the information on his computer.
(ii) She spread the towel on the sand.
(iii) There is barely any furniture in the room.
(iv) The tired people sat down on the ground.
(v) An old song was playing on the radio.
(vi) The band played music all evening.
(vii) Freshly baked bread has a delicious smell.
(viii) He prefers to do his research on the internet.

6. Fill in the blanks with the correct uncountable nouns from the brackets.

i) Father is packing his ……………………………. (trouser/trousers) for the vacation.
ii) The robbers took away the ……………………………. (golds/gold).
iii) Could you provide me some ……………………………. (informations/information) about the train schedules?
iv) Don’t play with ……………………………. (scissors/scissor).
v) Grandma, did you find your ……………………………. (spectacles/ spectacle)?

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