INTERCHANGE OF INTERROGATIVE AND ASSERTIVE SENTENCES
In some special types of Interrogatives, when the question is affirmative, a negative answer is implied; and when the question is negative, an affirmative answer is implied. Hence an Interrogative sentence is often changed into an Assertive sentence, and vice versa.
[কিছু বিশেষ ধরনের হ্যাঁ-সূচক প্রশ্নবােধক বাক্যে না-সূচক বিবৃতির এবং না-সূচক প্রশ্নবােধক বাক্যে হ্যাঁ-সূচক বিবৃতির ইঙ্গিত প্রচ্ছন্ন থাকে।]
• For the interchange of Interrogative and Assertive sentences, the following examples can be followed :
1. Int. : What is the use of this statue?
Assert. : There is no use of this statue.
2. Int. : When can their glory fade? [Or] Can their glory ever fade?
Assert. : Their glory can never fade.
3. Int. : Is he not a great fool?
Assert. : He is a great fool.
4. Assert. : No one can do this.
Int. : Can anyone do this?
5. Assert. : I can never forget you.
Int. : Can I ever forget you?
6. Assert. : Everybody loves his motherland.
Int. : Who does not love his motherland?
7. Assert. : He was a villain to do such a deed.
Int. : Was he not a villain to do such a deed?
Transform the following sentences from Interrogative to Assertive, and vice versa :
1. No one can bear an unprovoked insult.
2. No one ever saw a brighter daybreak than this.
3. If you tickle us, do we not laugh?
4. Who does not wish to be happy?
5. Shall I forget those happy days?
6. Is that the way a gentleman should behave?
7. Is this the kind of dress to wear in school?
8. Can anybody trust such a liar?
9. He was a fool to act thus.
10. Of what use is such an old thing?
11. Who does not know him?
12. Who can touch pitch without being defiled?
INTERCHANGE OF EXCLAMATORY AND ASSERTIVE SENTENCES
In course of change from Exclamatory to Assertive sentences ‘very’ is usually used before an Adjective and ‘great’ before a Noun. Moreover, it can be changed by using the verb ‘wish’, ‘exclaim in wonder’ etc.
[Exclamatory থেকে Assertive sentence-এ পরিবর্তন করার সময় সাধারণত Adjective-এর পূর্বে very এবং Noun-এর পূর্বে great বসানো হয়। তাছাড়া ‘wish’ ‘exclaim in wonder’ ইত্যাদি Verb প্রয়ােগ করেও পরিবর্তন করা যায়।]• For the interchange of Exclamatory and Assertive sentence, the following examples can be followed :
1. Excl. : How beautiful the night is!
Assert. : The night is very beautiful.
2. Excl. : How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank!
Assert. : The moonlight sleeps very sweetly upon this bank.
3. Excl. : Oh, that I were young again!
Assert. : I wish that I were young again.
4. Excl. : Had I but a friend to support me!
Assert. : I wish I had a friend to support me.
5. Excl. : What a nice bird it is!
Assert. : We exclaim in wonder that it is a very nice bird.
6. Excl. : Alas! Our beloved leader is dead.
Assert. : It is very sad that our beloved leader is dead.
Transform the following Exclamatory sentences into Assertive, and vice versa :
1. Ah, what a beautiful sight was there!
2. What a piece of work is man!
3. How awkwardly he manages his bat!
4. What a delicious flavour these mangoes have!
5. Oh, that I was there at the time!
6. He seems to be very clever.
7. It is very beautiful to look at.
8. You have fallen very low.
INTERCHANGE OF AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE SENTENCES
A Negative sentence is often formed by changing an Assertive sentence into an Interrogative, or vice versa. Moreover, a Negative form can be made by using opposite words, such as ‘none but’ for ‘only’ , ‘never’ for ‘ever’, ‘good’ for ‘bad’, etc., or by changing the degree of comparison or by using a clause –‘It is not that’ etc.
[Assertive থেকে ‘Interrogative’ বা Interrogative থেকে Assertive করে প্রায়শই Negative form করা যায়। তাছাড়া only থেকে none but; ever থেকে never; good থেকে bad এরকম opposite word ব্যবহার করে Negative form করা যায়, এবং কখনাে degree পরিবর্তন করে এবং কখনাে It is not that Clause ব্যবহার করেও Negative করা হয়।]
• For the interchange of Affirmative and Negative sentences, the following examples can be followed :
1. Affirm. : He is a great fool.
Neg. : Is he not a great fool?
2. Affirm. : Only a rogue can act thus.
Neg. : None but a rogue can act thus.
3. Affirm. : Can I ever forget you?
Neg. : I can never forget you.
4. Affirm. : He is going to attend the meeting.
Neg. : It is not that he is not going to attend the meeting.
5. Affirm. : He is the best boy in the class.
Neg. : No other boy in the class is as good as he.
6. Affirm. : A fisherman’s life is hard.
Neg. : A fisherman’s life is not easy-going.
Transform the following sentences from Affirmative to Negative, and vice versa :
1. I was doubtful whether it was you.
2. No one but a coward flees from his duty.
3. Learned men are not always judicious.
4. Great men are of no one nation, nor of one particular class.
5. As soon as he came, he made objections.
6. He is sometimes foolish.
7. Every man makes mistakes sometimes.
8. I care very little what he says about me.
9. There is no smoke without fire.
10. It is not likely that he will ever see his home again.
INTERCHANGE OF PARTS OF SPEECH
The same word or the basic idea can exist in several different forms. For example, the word success is a noun. It has two other forms: successful (adjective), and succeed (verb). By using different forms of the same word, we can express the same idea in several different ways.
[একই শব্দ বা মৌলিক ধারণা বিভিন্ন আকারে বিদ্যমান থাকতে পারে। উদাহরণস্বরূপ, success শব্দটি একটি noun, এটির আরও দুটি রূপ রয়েছে: successful (adjective), succeed (verb). একই শব্দের বিভিন্ন রূপ ব্যবহার করে, আমরা একই ধারণাকে বিভিন্ন উপায়ে প্রকাশ করতে পারি।]
• For the interchange of One Part Of Speech For Another, the following examples can be followed :
1. Interchange of Noun to Verb:
Noun: She gave me advice.
Verb: She advised me.
2. Interchange of Verb to Noun :
Verb: He promised that he would come.
Noun: He made a promise that he would come.
3. Interchange of Noun to Adjective :
Noun: She passed his life in peace.
Adjective: She passed a peaceful life.
4. Interchange of Adjective to Noun :
Adjective: Yoga makes our body strong.
Noun: Yoga gives strength to our body.
5. Interchange of Noun to Adverb :
Noun: Her intention was to insult me.
Adverb: She intentionally insulted me.
6. Interchange of Adverb to Noun :
Adverb: She spoke to me angrily.
Noun: She spoke to me in anger.
7. Interchange of Adjective to Adverb :
Adjective: She is attentive in cooking the food.
Adverb: She is cooking the food attentively.
8. Interchange of Adverb to Adjective :
Adverb: Luckily she helped me.
Adjective: It was lucky that she helped me.
9. Interchange of Adjective to Verb :
Adjective: This was pleasant news to me.
Verb: This news pleased me.
10. Interchange of Verb to Adjective :
Verb: The hunter succeeded in killing the tiger.
Adjective: The hunter was successful in killing the tiger.
11. Interchange of Verb to Adverb :
Verb: I forced him to go out.
Adverb: I turned him out forcibly.
12. Interchange of Adverb to Verb :
Adverb: We shall go to college hurriedly.
Verb: We shall hurry to school.
Interchange of One Part of Speech with Another in the sentences given below:
1. Your brother rejected my proposal. (Verb)
2. My purpose is quite clear in my letter. (Verb)
3. I could not attend the meeting because I was ill. (Noun)
4. You cannot gain admission without a trick. (Verb)
5. Your friend made a success of all his undertakings. (Verb)
6. I believe that he will come tomorrow. (Noun)
7. My sister will not give her consent to my departure. (Verb)
8. The prisoner confessed his guilt. (Adjective)
9. It was fortunate that he was not injured. (Adverb)
10. Indian culture differs from western culture. (Adjective)
11. The Taj is surprisingly beautiful. (Verb)
12. She succeeded in her attempt. (Adjective)
13. Baji Rao was admittedly the greatest of his time. (Verb)
14. Lord Clive successfully repelled every attack on Arcot(Verb)
15. That was not my meaning at all. (Verb)
INTERCHANGE OF ACTIVE VOICE AND PASSIVE VOICE
• For the interchange of Active voice and Passive voice, the following examples can be followed :
1. Active: I do it.
Passive: It is done by me.
2. Active: I am doing it.
Passive: It is being done by me.
3. Active: I have done it.
Passive: It has been done by me.
4. Active: I did it.
Passive: It was done by me.
5. Active: I was doing it.
Passive: It was being done by me.
6. Active: I had done it.
Passive: It had been done by me.
7. Passive: It will be done by me.
Active: I shall do it.
8. Passive: It will have been done by me.
Active: I shall have done it.
Change the voice of the following sentences :
i) He has read the book.
ii) Spring has forgotten the garden.
iii) He will give me a rupee.
iv) The Headmaster will punish the boy.
v) They fought a good fight.
vi) The thief had stolen his bag.
vii) Mother looked after the children well.
viii) Duties must be done.
ix) All the children should be loved.
x) What is seen by nim?
xi) My pen has been lost.
xii) A dream was dreamt by him.
xiii) The thief has been caught by the police.
xiv) The charge will be taken over tomorrow.
xv) I do not know why he has done this.
INTERCHANGE OF NARRATION
• For the interchange of Direct and Indirect speech, the following examples can be followed:
1. Direct: She said, “I work in New York Times.”
Indirect: She said that she worked in New York Times.
2. Direct: He asked, “Are they writing the paper?”
Indirect: He asked if they were writing the paper.
3. Direct: Nicolas said, “I have made a donut.”
Indirect: Nicolas said that he had made a donut.
4. Direct: The boy said, “I have been waiting for my mother since morning.”
Indirect: The boy said that he had been waiting for his mother since morning.
5. Indirect: She said that she has nothing to do.
Direct: She said, “I have nothing to do.”
6. Indirect: He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday.
Direct: “Bill arrived on Saturday”, he said.
7. Indirect: She said that she had been singing.
Direct: She said, “I was singing.”
8. Indirect: The teacher said that the earth moves around the sun.
Direct: The teacher said, “Earth moves around the sun.”
Change the following Narrations :
1. He says, “I was a cricketer.”
2. You said, “Photography is my hobby.”
3. He said, “Mr. Brown is an honest person.”
4. Atif said, “There is a mouse inside the box.”
5. She said, “They are my friends.”
6. Joe said, “Cricket is my favourite game.”
7. I said to you, “You are a stupid fellow.”
8. I said to my friend, “I don’t like coffee.”
9. I said to Neil, “You have to focus on your study.”
10. He exclaimed sadly that he was undone.
11. The teacher says that Rose smells sweet.
12. I said that he was driving a car.
13. He explained that he was reading a book.
14. My father said he was cooking dinner.
15. My sister said she had already eaten.
INTERCHANGE OF DEGREE OF COMPARISON
• For the interchange of the degree of comparison, the following examples can be followed :
1. Positive: I am as strong as him.
Comparative: He is not stronger than me.
2. Positive: I am not so wise as he.
Comparative: He is wiser than me.
3. Positive: No other girl in the class is as tall as Alice.
Comparative: Alice is taller than any other girl in the class.
Superlative: Alice is the tallest girl in the class.
4. Positive: No other poet of India was so great as Kalidas.
Comparative: Kalidas was greater than any other poet of India.
Superlative: Kalidas was the greatest poet of India.
5. Positive: No other metal is as precious as gold.
Comparative: Gold is more precious than any other metal.
Superlative: Gold is the most precious of all metals.
6. Superlative: India is the largest democracy in the world.
Comparative: India is larger than any other democracy in the world.
Positive: No other democracy in the world is as large as India.
7. Superlative: Susie is one of the cleverest girls in the class.
Comparative: Susie is cleverer than most other girls in the class.
Positive: Few girls in the class are as clever as Susie.
8. Positive: Very few Indian leaders were as great as Netaji.
Comparative: Netaji was greater than most other Indian leaders.
Superlative: Netaji was one of the greatest Indian leaders.
9. Positive: Very few girls are as beautiful as Sonia.
Comparative: Sonia is more beautiful than most other girls.
Superlative: Sonia is one of the most beautiful girls.
10. Positive: This city is at least as calm as some other cities.
Comparative: Some cities are not calmer than this one.
Or, This city is not less calm than some cities.
11. Positive: Some boys are at least as brave as Ram.
Comparative: Ram is not braver than some other boys.
Or, Some boys are not less brave than Ram.
Superlative: Ram is not the bravest of all boys.
Change the degree of comparison:
1. Ram is the most talented boy in the class.
2. Mr. Verma is the wisest man in the company.
3. Ram is stronger than Majid.
4. Lucknow is one of the most beautiful cities in India.
5. You are weaker than me.
6. You are fatter than I.
7. Amman is larger than Europe.
8. I am wiser than Mahi.
9. Open rebuke is better than secret love.
10. Mohan is the fattest boy in the family.
11. Some girls in the class are cleverer than Rani.
12. Some poets are at least as great as Bihari.
13. Few countries are as great as India.
14. No other planet of the solar system is so large as Jupiter.
15. This is colder than in all other places.
16. America is the richest country in the world.
17. England had the largest fleet in the world in 1918.
18. Mussoorie is as healthy as any hill station in U.P.
19. Man is one of the most dangerous animals.
20. Australia is the largest island in the world.
21. The elder sister is not so smart as the younger one. (Comp.)
22. Sardar Patel was greater than any other Indian leader. (Sup.)
23. The trains run faster than cars. (Pos.)
24. This is the biggest temple in Ujjain. (Com.)
25. A wise enemy is better than a foolish friend. (Pos.)
TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES – SIMPLE, COMPLEX & COMPOUND
Before proceeding first we should learn what a simple, complex and compound sentence is –
1. Simple Sentence: When in a sentence that has one independent clause it is called simple sentence. [ যখন একটি বাক্যে একটি স্বাধীন খন্ড বাক্য থাকে তখন তাকে Simple sentence বলে। ]
Example: He confessed his illegal act.
2. Complex Sentence: When in a sentence that has one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses it is called a complex sentence. [ যে সকল বাক্যে একটি প্রধান খন্ড বাক্য থাকে এবং তার উপর আশ্রয় বা অবলম্বন করে আরও এক বা একাধিক খন্ড বাক্য থাকে তাকেই Complex sentence বলে। ]
Example: He confessed that he was guilty of his illegal act.
3. Compound Sentence: When in a sentence that has more than one main clause it is called the compound sentence. [ নিরপেক্ষ দুই বা তার অধিক সরল বাক্য যদি কোন সংযোজক অব্যয় দ্বারা সংযুক্ত হয়ে একটি সম্পূর্ণ বাক্য তৈরী করে তখন তাকে Compound sentence বলে। ]
Example: I went to watch a movie named Justice League, but the movie was already houseful.
Transformation of Simple into Complex
• For transforming simple into the complex, the following examples can be followed:
1. Simple: Closing the door, I went back to school.
Complex: When I closed the door, I went back to school.
2. Simple: After winning a beauty contest she cried.
Complex: As she won the beauty contest, she cried.
3. Simple: He is too weak to carry the box.
Complex: He is so weak that he cannot carry the box.
4. Simple: We eat to live.
Complex: We eat so that we can live.
5. Simple: In spite of being rich, she is hard working.
Complex: Though she is rich, she is hard working.
6. Simple: Because of his illness, he could not join the meeting.
Complex: Since he was ill, he could not join the meeting.
7. Simple: I saw a bird flying.
Complex: I saw a bird which was flying.
8. Simple: Without adding the sugar the dish will taste bad.
Complex: If you do not add sugar the dish will taste bad.
9. Simple: She woke up at the time of load shedding.
Complex: She woke up when it was load shedding.
10. Simple: It was a blue shirt.
Complex: It was a shirt which was blue.
Change the following simple sentences into the complex:
1. The boy sitting next to you is my brother.
2. Can you tell me the road leading to the hospital?
3. Hard-working students hate fashion.
4. Well-behaved boys respect their teachers.
5. I was the first man to hear the shocking news.
6. I have found my lost purse.
7. A burnt child dreads the fire.
8. I make a promise only to keep it.
9.Wise men do not quarrel over small things.
10. A rolling stone gathers no mass.
11. He failed to my great surprise.
12. With all his wealth he is not happy.
13. He was too much excited to hear reasons.
14. She works hard to earn money.
15. It is never too late to learn.
Transformation of Complex into Simple
• For transforming the complex into simple, the following examples can be followed:
1. Complex: Since I was ill, I could not attend the meeting.
Simple: Being ill, I could not attend the meeting.
2. Complex: As I performed very well, I got the first prize.
Simple: Performing very well, I got the first prize.
3. Complex: When the criminal saw the police, he ran away.
Simple: Seeing the police, the criminal ran away.
4.Complex: When the chicken curry arrived, we started having lunch.
Simple: On the arrival of the chicken curry, we started having lunch.
5. Complex: Since the weather was very bad, we did not start the journey.
Simple: The weather being very bad, we did not start the journey.
6. Complex: He was loved by all, as he had honesty.
Simple: He was loved by all, because of his having honesty.
7. Complex: The doctor lived in a quarter that belonged to the hospital.
Simple: The doctor lived in a quarter belonging to the hospital.
8. Complex: When he was six, he left the country.
Simple: At the age of six, he left the country.
9. Complex: If you do not struggle in life, you cannot achieve your goal.
Simple: Without struggling in life, you cannot achieve your goal.
10. Complex: The student studied hard so that he could get good marks on the exam.
Simple: The student studied hard to get good marks on the exam.
11. Complex: He is so sick that he cannot come.
Simple: He is too weak to come.
12. Complex: Though she was sick, she worked very hard.
Simple: In spite of her being sick, she worked very hard.
Change the following complex sentences into simple:
1. He heard that his father was ill.
2. There is no sense in what he says.
3. She said that she was innocent.
4. He admitted that he was mistaken.
5. I do not know who wrote Shima.
6. Rita has a ring which is made of gold.
7. Rima has an umbrella which has a broken handle.
8. I found the purse which was lost.
9. Those boys who are good are loved by their parents.
10. You can take anything that you like.
11. As soon as he read the news, he informed his mother.
12. I sleep when it is midnight.
13. If you play regularly. you will be excused.
14. If you speak the truth, you will be excused.
15. Aman returned when it was midnight.
Transformation of Simple into Compound
• For transforming simple into a compound, the following examples can be followed:
• By using Cumulative Conjunctions like, and, not only…but also, etc.
1. Simple: Taking off his clothes, he jumped into the river.
Compound: He took off his clothes and jumped into the river.
2. Simple: In addition to useful advice, he gave me financial help.
Compound: He gave me not only useful advice but also financial help.
• By using Adversative Conjunctions like, but, still, yet, etc.
1. Simple: In spite of very bad weather, they succeeded in conquering Mt. Everest.
Compound: The weather was very bad, but still they succeeded in conquering Mt. Everest.
2. Simple: He had every qualification for the post except sincerity.
Compound: He had every qualification for the post, but he was not sincere.
• By using Alternative Conjunctions like, or, otherwise, else, etc.
1. Simple: You must take a rich diet to gain weight.
Compound: You must take a rich diet, or you will not gain weight.
2. Simple: Take another step at the peril of your life.
Compound: Don’t take another step, else your life will be at the peril.
Change the following simple sentences into compounds:
1. He must go to finish the work.
2. You must work hard to win the prize.
3. Owing to ill health he could not work hard.
4. I could not finish the work before sunset.
5. They had not completed the work by sunset.
6. In addition to money, he gave me a book to read.
7. He walked very fast in order to catch the train.
8. Hearing the noise, I left the bed.
9. In spite of being poor, he was happy.
10. He could not come to school because of illness.
11. After working hard, I was tired.
12. Everyone loves him for his simple nature.
13. Throwing off his coat, he plunged into the sea.
14. The fog being very dense, the car stopped.
15. Besides educating his nephew, he also set him up in business.
Transformation of Compound into Simple
• For transforming a compound into simple, the following examples can be followed:
• By using Prepositional phrase
1. Compound: He is a Russian by birth, but he speaks Hindi like his mother tongue.
Simple: In spite of being a Russian by birth, He speaks Hindi like his mother tongue.
2. Compound: This book is not beautifully printed, but is free from mistakes also.
Simple: Besides being beautifully printed, this book is free from mistakes.
3. Compound: He worked hard and so he passed.
Simple: He passed by dint of his hard work.
• By using Participle
1. Compound: The umpire found the light poor and decided to call off the day’s play.
Simple: Finding the light poor, the umpire decided to call off the day’s play.
2. Compound: He came home and began to work.
Simple: Coming home, he began to work.
• By using Infinitive
1. Compound: You must observe austerity, or you will not become morally strong.
Simple: You must observe austerity to become morally strong.
2. Compound: His business failed and this added to his woes.
Simple: His business failed to add to his woes.
Change the following compound sentences into simple:
1. Be good and you will be carefree.
2. He must pay for the damage or he will be fined.
3. I went to Kanpur where I met my friend.
4. The game was over and the players left the field.
5. He was merely a boy and yet he offered to oppose the soldier.
6. Turn to the left and you will reach the college.
7. The thief saw the police and ran away.
8. She completed her work and informed the boss.
9. He was a poor man and yet he was honest.
10. He was poor but he was respected by all the people of his village.
11. Rima was angry but she did not punish the students.
12. Study well otherwise you will fail.
13. The news is good but it is not true.
14. He finished his work and went home.
15. The sun rose and the fog dispersed.
Transformation of Compound into Complex
• For transforming a compound into a complex, the following examples can be followed:
• Compound sentences with Cumulative conjunctions
1. Compound: He wanted to win the prize and worked hard.
Complex: He worked hard so that he might win the prize.
2. Compound: He was ill so he could not go.
Complex: He could not go as he was ill.
• Compound sentences with Adversative conjunctions like but, still, however, nevertheless etc.
1. Compound: Attend your classes regularly, or you will fall short of attendance.
Complex: If you do not attend your classes regularly, you will fall short of attendance.
2. Compound: Obey or you will be beaten.
Complex: If you do not obey you will be beaten.
• Compound sentences with Alternative conjunctions like or, otherwise, else, therefore, either…or etc.
1. Compound: I can not afford to buy many books, therefore I usually study in the library.
Complex: Since I can not afford to buy many books, I usually study in the library.
2. Compound: She was ill, so she did not come.
Complex: As she was ill, she did not come.
Change the following compound sentences into the complex:
1. He tried his best, but he didn’t succeed.
2. The clown entered the circus ring and the children started clapping.
3. Take care of the pence and the pounds will take care of themselves.
4. You have to hurry or you will miss the bus.
5. The battle has been won but the war isn’t over yet.
6. The country has made huge progress, but we still have a long way to go.
7. You have to be 18 years old or you can’t vote.
8. Leprosy is curable and everybody knows this.
9. He is a magician from Turkey and he has performed all over the world.
10. Do and die.
11. He is industrious but he is dull.
12. Be good you need not to be clever.
13. I was wounded but not killed.
14. Read and you will learn.
15. Your money or your life.
Transformation of Complex into Compound
• For transforming the complex into the compound, the following examples can be followed:
• By using Cumulative conjunctions, and
1. Complex: Everybody knows that man is mortal.
Compound: Man is mortal and this fact everybody knows.
2. Complex: If I am right, I should be supported.
Compound: I may be right and in that case, I should be supported.
• By using Adversative conjunctions like but, still, however, nevertheless etc.
1. Complex: Although they lost the match, they were not disgraced.
Compound: They lost the match, but they were not disgraced.
2. Complex: I have found the book that I had lost.
Compound: I had lost a book, but I have found it.
• By using Alternative conjunctions like or, otherwise, else, either…or etc.
1. Complex: If you don’t surrender your arms immediately, you will be shot dead.
Compound: Surrender your arms immediately, or you will be shot dead.
2. Complex: Unless you do it, you will regret.
Compound: Do it or you will regret.
Change the following complex sentences into compounds:
1. If you spare the rod, you will spoil the child.
2. Unless you leave the room, I shall compel you to do so.
3. If you do not hold your tongue, you will repent.
4. I have found the book that I had lost.
5. He is more a fool than a knave.
6. He works so hard in order that he may become rich.
7. If he is here, I would explain everything to him.
8. When you have worked out this sum, you may go out to play.
9. As soon as the trumpet sounded, the battle commenced.
10. He left for home yesterday as he received his father’s letter.
11. You shall not leave the room till you have made an apology.
12. If you lead, I shall follow.
13. As soon as we heard the gunshot, we rushed to the spot.
14. If you are honest, you need not fear anybody.
15. I called for John who came at once.
Omission of But
• For replacing but by the help and vice-versa the following examples can be followed:
1. But: I cannot but comply with his desire.
Help: I cannot help complying with his desire.
2. But: A poet could not but be gay in such a jocund company.
Help: A poet could not help being gay in such a jocund company.
3. Help: Girls cannot but talk.
But: Girls cannot help talking.
• Remove but and use help and vice-versa:
1. I cannot but protest.
2. She could not help loving him.
3. Children cannot but chatter.
4. He could not but help her.