English Grammar Complete Guide - Joining and Splitting

English Grammar Complete Guide – Joining and Splitting

SYNTHESIS OR JOINING OF SENTENCES

Joining or Synthesis (putting together) means the combination of a number of sentences into one new sentence-simple, complex, or compound. [Joining or Synthesis এর অর্থ হল কয়েকটি বাক্যকে জুড়ে নতুন একটি বাক্য তৈরী করা।]

The following are the chief ways of combining two or more Simple Sentences into one Simple Sentence –

A. By using a Participle:

1. He saw me come. He ran away.
–Seeing me come, he ran away.
2. He was tired. He rested for while.
–Being tired, he rested for a while.
3. The ancient Britons had long been disused to war. They were easily defeated by the Saxons.
–Having been long disused to war, the ancient Britons were easily defeated by the Saxons.
4. The workmen saw the approach of a violent dust-storm. They took shelter in a hut.
–Seeing the approach of a violent dust storm, the workmen took shelter in a hut.
5. The hunter feared the lion. So, he climbed up a tree.
–Fearing the lion, the hunter climbed up a tree.
6. They were tired of the long journey. They went to a nearby hotel for rest.
—Being tired (Tired) of the long journey, they went to a nearby hotel for rest.
7. We were utterly exhausted. We fainted on the ground.
—Utterly exhausted, we fainted on the ground.
8. The Prime Minister addressed the meeting. He asked for everybody’s cooperation.
–The Prime Minister addressed the meeting asking for everybody’s cooperation.

B. By using an Infinitive:

1. He has many sons. He has to educate them.
–He has many sons to educate.
2. He is very weak. He cannot walk.
—He is too weak to walk.
3. Srila is going home. She is going there to see her mother.
–Srila is going home to see her mother.
4. Everyone should be honest. Our country expects it.
–Our country expects everyone to be honest.
5. We shall remove the bench. That will make room for more people.
—We shall remove the bench to make room for more people.
6. I have bought some oranges. Their taste is sweet.
—The oranges I have bought are sweet to taste.
7. Some more meetings will be held. I shall attend them.
—I have more meetings to attend (that will be held).
8. She is very ill. She cannot bear the strain of a long journey.
–She is too ill to bear the strain of a long journey.
9. I was overwhelmed with joy. I could not utter a single word.
–I was too overwhelmed with joy to utter a single word.

C. By using an Adverb or an Adverbial phrase :

1. He failed. It was unfortunate.
—Unfortunately, he failed.
2. He returned home. It was the evening at the time.
—He returned home in the evening.
3. He went there once more. His going did not produce any result.
—He went there once more but with no result.
4. The Germans were proud. This ruined them.
–The Germans were ruined because of their pride.
5. He was demoralised. His demoralisation was total.
—He was totally demoralised.
6. He has no patience. So, he failed.
—He failed for want of patience.
7. The letter came. It was most unexpected.
—Most unexpectedly, the letter came.

D. By using an Absolute Phrase :

1. The sun set. We began our march.
—The sun having set we began our march.
2. The dinner was over. We left the place.
–Dinner (being) over, we left the place.
3. The match was over. They left for home.
—The match (being) over, they left for home.
4. The sun rose. The fog disappeared. The General was determined to delay no longer He gave order to soldiers to march forward.
—The fog having disappeared at sunrise the General determined not to delay any longer, gave order to soldiers to march forward.
5. The teacher was absent. So, there was no English class today.
—The teacher being absent, there was no English class today.
6. God may will. We shall then have a prosperous year.
—God willing, we shall have a prosperous year.
7. Weather may permit. We shall have a big party outside.
—Weather permitting, we shall have a big party outside.

E. By using a Noun or a Phrase in Apposition :

1. Akbar was the Emperor of India. He was one of the greatest kings of his time.
–Akbar, the Emperor of India, was one of the greatest kings of his time.
2. Delhi was once the capital of India. It has regained the honour.
–Delhi, once the capital of India, has regained the honour.
3. Sunil Gavasker broke many records. He was the captain of the Indian Cricket team.
–Sunil Gavasker, the former captain of the Indian Cricket team, broke many records.
4. Gargi is my sister. She is now in England.
–Gargi, my sister, is now in England.
5. Mr Dutta is my neighbour. He is a Professor in Botany.
–Mr Dutta, my neighbour, is a Professor in Botany.

**NOTE: A noun is said to be in Apposition with another noun or pronoun when it refers to the same person or object.

F. By using a Preposition with a Noun or a Gerund :

1. He came. You had already left.
–He came after your departure.
2. He worked very hard. He did not sleep.
–He worked very hard without sleeping.
3. I helped him with money. This proved my love for him.
–I proved my love for him by helping him with money.
4. He wrote for five hours. Then he took some rest.
–After writing for five hours, he took some rest.
5. They went by bus. At last they could reach the station.
–They could reach the station at a last by going there by bus.
6. The boy stood on the deck for hours. He did not move. He did not speak.
–The boy stood on the deck for hours without moving or speaking.
7. He gave up his claim. He won everybody’s respect.
—He won everybody’s respect by giving up his claim.
8. I have just retired. I served for 30 years.
–After serving for thirty years, I have just retired.

 

Conversion of two or more Simple sentences into a single Complex Sentence.

Two or more Simple Sentences may be combined into a Single complex Sentence in any of the following ways :

A. By using a Noun Clause:

1. He is ill. It is known to all.
—That he is ill is known to all.
Or, It is known to all that he is ill.
2. He has come. We know it.
–We know that he has come.
3. He did it. I do not know how. It is true.
–It is true that I do not know how he did it.
4. They live at some place. We do not know it.
–We do not know where they live.
5. Is there anything in the box ? I only want to know it.
–I only want to know if there is anything in the box.
6. You are an idiot. That complicates the issue.
–That you are an idiot complicates the issue.
7. He is laughing. Nobody knows the reason.
—Nobody knows (the reason) why he is laughing.
8. The boy will pass. He will pass with distinction. Everybody knows it.
—Everybody knows that the boy will pass with distinction.
Or, That the boy will pass with distinction is known to everybody.

B. By using an Adjective Clause :

1. This is the girl. She stood first in the examination.
—This is the girl who stood first in the examination.
2. I have lost the book. You gave it to me.
–I have lost the book you gave me.
3. There were a few boys there. One of them threw stones at the dog. It had entered the garden.
–One of the boys who were there threw stones at the dog that had entered the garden.
4. The postman knocked at the door. The postman came with some letters.
—The postman who knocked at the door came with some letters.
5. We have a noble heritage. We cannot indulge in violence.
–We who have a noble heritage cannot indulge in violence.
6. Rabindranath was born at Jorasanko. It is in Calcutta.
—Rabindranath was born at Jorasanko which is in Calcutta.
7. The food was very good. It was cooked by my sister.
—The food which / that was cooked by my sister was very good.
8. A writer should write clearly. You must acquire the command.
—You must acquire the command of clarity that a writer must have.

C. By using an Adverbial clause:

1. You are pardoned. You have confessed your crime.
–As you have confessed your crime. you are pardoned.
2. I may grant you your prayer. You shall have to ask for it.
—I may grant you your prayer if you ask for it.
3. He is rich. I was in difficulty. He did not help me.
—Though he is rich, he did not help me when I was in difficulty.
4. He could lend me the money. I was in great distress. I asked him for money. He did not lend me any.
–As I was in great distress, I asked him for money that he could lend but declined.
5. The storm broke out in the evening. We lost our way in the jungle.
—We lost our way in the jungle in the evening when the storm broke out.
6. She worked overtime. She intended to complete the job before December.
–She worked overtime in order to complete the job before December.
7. We shall reach the meeting place. Thereafter the meeting will start.
–We shall reach the meeting place before the meeting starts.
Or, The meeting will start after our arrival there.
8. Bintu is competent. You are competent.
—You are as competent as Bintu.

**NOTE: Adverbial clauses are generally introduced by when, till, as-as, before, since, thereafter, until, so that.

 

Conversion of Several Simple Sentences to a Compound Sentence.

Several Simple Sentences may be converted to a Compound Sentence with the help of Co-ordinating conjunctions in the following ways :

1. Amal reads in this school. Barun reads in this school.
— Amal and Barun read in this school.
2. He is poor. He is honest.
–He is poor but (yet, still) he is honest.
3. You must read. You will fail.
–You must read, otherwise you will fail.
4. Run fast, you will miss the bus.
–Run fast or you will miss the bus.
5. He was not sincere. He could not succeed.
–He was not sincere, so (consequently) he could not succeed.
6. He passed. His brother failed.
—He passed while (whereas) his brother failed.
7. You are guilty. I pardon you this time.
—You are guilty; however I pardon you this time.
8. I do not like him. He is a wicked boy.
–I do not like him, for he is a wicked boy.
9. You may accept the offer. You may refuse it.
–You may accept the offer or refuse it.
Or, You may either accept the offer or refuse it.
10. I did not know anything of it. My brother also did not know anything of it.
–Neither my brother nor I know anything of it.

N.B. Either……or, Neither……nor are placed just before the alternatives. [Either……or, Neither……nor যার বিকল্প বোঝায়, ঠিক তার পূর্বে বসে।]

 

SPLITTING OF SENTENCES

A long sentence can be split up into some short simple sentences. In fact, it is the opposite of Synthesis or joining. Here are some examples. Pay special attention to supplying Subject and Verb in short sentences and maintaining the sequence of action.

[একটি দীর্ঘ বাক্যকে কয়েকটি ছােট সরল বাক্যে ভাঙা যায়। প্রকৃতপক্ষে split up হল Joining-এর বিপরীত ক্রিয়া। এখানে কিছু উদাহরণ দেওয়া হল। ছােট বাক্যগুলিতে Subject এবং Verb ব্যবহার করার  দিকে বিশেষ মনােযােগ দাও এবং ঘটনার পারম্পর্য বজায় রাখাে।]

Examples:

(i) He took a pen and a piece of paper and wrote something on it.
–He took a pen. He took a piece of paper. He wrote something on it.
(ii) It is such a good news that I cannot believe it.
–It is very good news. But I cannot believe it.
(iii) As you are a proven liar, I cannot believe you.
–You are a proved liar. So I cannot believe you.
(iv) Being tired from a long walk, the traveler sat under a tree.
–The traveler was tired from a long walk. So he sat under a tree.
(v) Habib was unhappy when he was punished and shown a red card by the referee.
–Habib was punished by the referee. He was also shown a red card by the referee. So he was unhappy.
(vi) This is Bikash who is not only my friend but also one of the best boys in the class.
–This is Bikash. He is my friend. He is also one of the best boys in the class.
(vii) Amal headed the ball that was floated into the penalty area by Akhtar, taken from a corner kick.
–Amal headed the ball. It was floated into the penalty area by Akhtar. It was taken from a corner kick.
(viii) The boy stood on the burning deck, from where everyone else had gone away.
–The boy stood on the deck. The deck was burning. Everyone else had gone away from there.
(ix) Men of science have proved that the sun does not move around the earth, but the earth moves round the sun.
–The earth moves around the sun. The sun does not move around the earth. Men of science have proved these facts.
(x) History says that Socrates when he was given a cup of hemlock, continued to talk to his friends who were standing beside him.
–Socrates was given a cup of hemlock. He continued to talk to his friends. They were standing beside him. History says this.

 

Exercise

1. Join the following sentences into single sentences :

(a) I was ill. He heard of it. He at once went to the doctor. He did not wait for me.
(b) The boy was healthy. He was strong. It was not difficult for him to lift the load of forty kilograms.
(c) A meeting was held in the Town Hall. You were absent from the meeting. I am sorry at this.
(d) I heard a loud noise. It was like the bursting of a bomb. It came from a house close by.
(e) It was Sunday last. A fire broke out in the multi-storeyed building at Burrabazar. It broke out at midnight.
(f) I saw an old man. This was on my way to school. He was poor. He was also bent down with age.
(g) Hiroshima was a city of Japan. An atom bomb was dropped on it. The atom bomb destroyed it.
(h) He keeps some dogs. The dogs are well-trained. They will guard his house.
(i) The sky is cloudy. He should take an umbrella. It will be better for him.
(j)The book teaches me grammar. It is a new one. It was given by my father.

2. Split up the following sentences into short simple sentences :

(a) I am sorry to hear that you have failed, though I think that you deserved to pass.
(b) While he was speaking, a man entered and told him that the prince had suddenly died.
(c) Since he was a poor man, he said nothing of the bag full of one lakh rupees he had found, but left the country.
(d) Everybody knows that the boy who came to me for help is a liar and a cheat.
(e) I could not but feel sorry for the old man who, once very rich, was now deserted by all and was lying in sick-bed in his lonely hut.
(f) He taught us that it is the duty of every man to love his neighbours and help them to the best of his power.
(g) When I was in my native village during the summer vacation, I often went to the houses of the poor people to know their difficulties.
(h) Hearing that he was not able to accompany me because he was ill with fever, I gave up the idea of going to Darjeeling.
(i) We heard the cry and rushed to the spot to help the passengers who were trapped inside the bus that was overturned.
(j) I gave him my thanks for finding my purse and returning it to me without taking anything from it.

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