Class 10 English Chapter 1 Father’s Help – R. K. Narayan

Father’s Help – R. K. Narayan

About the author & the text:

R. K. Narayan (1906-2001) is one of the best-known and finest Indo-English writers. He created the imaginary town of Malgudi, where realistic characters in a typically Indian setting lived amid unpredictable events. His notable and most popular works include Malgudi Days and the Sahitya Academy award-wining The Guide.

The present text is an edited excerpt from Malgudi Days. The story is about a young boy Swaminathan

 

Unit 1 Summary:

On a Monday morning, Swaminathan was repenting of Friday being gone soon and wished if he did not have to go to school. Swami pretended of having a headache and his mother generously suggested that he might stay at home. But his strict father did not pay attention to his nonsense excuses and told him to dress up and go. So Swami thought to change his tactics and pleaded, he could not go to school so late and falsely accused his teacher Samuel of being a very angry man who would scold him severely if he was late in the class.

[ এক সোমবার সকালে স্বামীনাথন শুক্রবার শীঘ্রই চলে যাওয়ার জন্য অনুশোচনা বোধ করছিল এবং সে চাইছিল যদি তাকে স্কুলে যেতে না হতো।  স্বামী মাথা ব্যথার ভান শুরু করলো এবং তার মা তাকে উদারভাবে পরামর্শ দিলেন যে সে বাড়িতে থাকতে পারে।  কিন্তু তার কঠোর বাবা তার আজেবাজে অজুহাতে পাত্তা দেননি এবং তাকে তৈরী হয়ে স্কুলে যেতে বলেন।  তাই স্বামী তার কৌশল পরিবর্তন করার কথা ভাবল এবং অনুনয় করল যে সে এত দেরিতে স্কুলে যেতে পারবেনা এবং মিথ্যাভাবে তার শিক্ষক স্যামুয়েলকে খুব রাগী ব্যক্তি হিসেবে অভিযুক্ত করে, যিনি স্বামীকে খুব বকবেন ক্লাসে দেরী করলে।  ]

Unit 1 Word Notes:

Realized – বুঝতে পারলো
Shudder –  কাঁপুনি
Wailed – জোরে জোরে কাঁদা বা বিলাপ করা
Headache – মাথাব্যথা
Generously – উদার ভাবে
Loaf – ইতস্তত ঘুরে বেড়ানো
Strict – কঠোর
Tactics – পন্থা
Fault – দোষ
Scold – বকাঝকা করা

Comprehension Exercises

1. Choose the correct alternative to complete the following sentences:

(a) With a shudder Swami realized that it was
(i)   Friday   (ii)  Thursday   (iii) Wednesday   (iv) Monday

Ans:  (iv) Monday

 (b) When Swami ought to have been in the school prayer hall, he was lying on the
(i)   bench   (ii)  table   (iii) bed   (iv) desk

Ans:   (i)   bench 

(c) According to Swami, Samuel is especially angry with boys who are
(i)   absent   (ii)  late   (iii) inattentive   (iv) undisciplined

Ans:  (ii)  late

2. Fill in the chart with information from the text:

(a)  time when Swami complained of a headache   At nine o’clock
(b) person who ordered Swami to dress up and go to school   Swami’s father
(c)  name of the teacher mentioned by Swami   Samuel

3. State whether the following statements are True or False. Providesentences/ phrases/ words in support of your answer:

(a) Swami said that he had a headache.      True

Supporting Statement: Swaminathan wailed, “I have a headache.”

(b) Swami was lying in his father’s bed.     False

Supporting Statement: Swami was lying on the bench in Mother’s room.         

(c) According to Swami, the headmaster was not afraid of Swami.      False

Supporting Statement: “They say that even the headmaster is afraid of him.”

 

Unit 2 Summary:

Swami hoped that his father would be convinced and made to see the reason for avoiding the school for the day. But his father’s behavior took an unexpected turn as he proposed to send a letter to the headmaster about Samuel and told him to deliver the letter to the headmaster before entering the class. On his way to the school, Swami began to feel himself as the worst boy on earth and tried to rethink about Samuel. He felt that Samuel was not a bad person at all and doubted if he really deserved these allegations. He grieved and recalled Samuel’s face.

 [ স্বামী আশা করছিল যে তার বাবা বুঝবেন  ওইদিন স্কুলে যাওয়া এড়ানোর কারণ।  কিন্তু তার বাবার আচরণ একটি অপ্রত্যাশিত মোড় নেয় যখন তিনি স্যামুয়েল সম্পর্কে প্রধান শিক্ষকের কাছে একটি চিঠি পাঠানোর প্রস্তাব করেন এবং ক্লাসে প্রবেশের আগে তাকে চিঠিটি প্রধান শিক্ষকের কাছে পৌঁছে দিতে বলেন।  স্কুলে যাওয়ার পথে, স্বামী নিজেকে পৃথিবীর সবচেয়ে খারাপ ছেলে ভাবতে শুরু করে এবং সে স্যামুয়েল সম্পর্কে পুনর্বিবেচনার চেষ্টা করে। সে অনুভব করল যে স্যামুয়েল মোটেও খারাপ ব্যক্তি ছিলেন না এবং  অনিশ্চয়তা বোধ করছিল যে তিনি সত্যিই এই অভিযোগগুলির যোগ্য কিনা। তার মন খারাপ হয়ে যায় এবং স্যামুয়েলের মুখ স্মরণ করতে থাকে।]

Unit 2 Word Notes:

Unexpected – অপ্রত্যাশিত
Protest – প্রতিবাদ
Composed –  রচনা করেছিলেন
Envelope – খাম
Apprehensively – আশঙ্কাজনকভাবে
Conscience – বিবেক
Bothered – বিব্রত করা
Dizzy – মাথা ঘোরা
Allegations – অভিযোগসমূহ
Grieved – মনঃক্ষুণ্ণ

Comprehension Exercises

4. Choose the correct alternative to complete the following sentences:

(a) Father decided to send the headmaster a
(i)   telegram   (ii)  notice   (iii) letter   (iv) report

Ans:   (iii) letter

(b) While going to school Swami was bothered by
(i)   conscience   (ii)  headache   (iii) toothache   (iv) fever

Ans:    (i)   conscience  

(c) The colour of Samuel’s coat was
(i)   black   (ii)  blue   (iii) white   (iv) yellow

Ans:  (iv) yellow

5. Complete the following sentences with information from the text:

(a) Father’s behaviour took an unexpected turn.

(b) Swami went to school feeling that he was the worst boy on earth.

(c) Swami stopped on the roadside to make up his mind about Samuel.

6. Answer the following question:

 a) Where did Father put the letter?

Ans. Father put the letter in an envelope.

 b) What did Swami fail to decide about Samuel?

Ans. Swami failed to decide if Samuel really deserved the allegations made against him in the letter.

c) How did Samuel look?

Ans. Samuel had a dark face with a thin mustache and unshaven cheek. He used to wear a yellow coat.

 

Unit 3 Summary:

As swami entered the school gate, he planned to deliver the letter to the headmaster at the end of the day, thinking that during the school hours Samuel might do something to justify the letter. But nothing happened as per Swami’s expectations. Samuel did not scold him for being late or for not doing homework. He was not only generous but he also appreciated the attitude of Swami’s father against absenting from school. This changed Swami’s perspective. However, Swami ran towards the headmaster’s office after the school hour to deliver the letter. But he was relieved for not being able to deliver the letter as the headmaster was on leave. In the end, Swani’s father scolded him for not delivering the letter and told he would not help him again.

[ স্বামী স্কুলের গেটে প্রবেশ করার সাথে সাথে, প্রধান শিক্ষকের কাছে চিঠিটি দিনের শেষে পৌঁছে দেওয়ার পরিকল্পনা করে, এই ভেবে যে স্কুল চলাকালীন স্যামুয়েল চিঠিটিকে সমর্থন করার মতো যদি কিছু করে।  কিন্তু স্বামীর প্রত্যাশা অনুযায়ী কিছুই হয়নি।  দেরি হওয়ার জন্য বা বাড়ির কাজ না করার জন্য স্যামুয়েল তাকে মোটেই বকাঝকা করেনি।  তিনি শুধুই উদার ছিলেন না, তিনি স্কুলে অনুপস্থিত থাকার বিরুদ্ধে স্বামীর বাবার মনোভাবেরও প্রশংসা করেন।  এতে স্বামীর দৃষ্টিভঙ্গি বদলে যায়।  যাইহোক, চিঠি দেওয়ার জন্য স্কুলের সময় শেষে প্রধান শিক্ষকের অফিসের দিকে ছুটে যায় স্বামী।  কিন্তু প্রধান শিক্ষক ছুটিতে থাকায় চিঠি পৌঁছে দিতে না পারায় স্বস্তি পায় সে।  শেষ পর্যন্ত, স্বামীর বাবা চিঠি না দেওয়ার জন্য তাকে বকাঝকা করেন এবং বলেন যে তিনি তাকে আর সাহায্য করবেন না। ]

Unit 3 Word Notes:

Occurred – আবির্ভূত হওয়া
Justify – ন্যায্য বা সমর্থনযোগ্য প্রমাণ করা
Entrance – প্রবেশ দ্বার
Arithmetic – পাটিগণিত
Severely – প্রচন্ড ভাবে
Inspecting – পরিদর্শন করা
Snatched –  ছিনিয়ে নেওয়া

Comprehension Exercises

7. Choose the correct alternative to complete the following sentences:

(a) When Swami entered the class, Samuel was teaching
(i)   history   (ii)  arithmetic   (iii) science   (iv) geography

Ans: (ii)  arithmetic

(b) Swami was late to school by
(i)   half an hour   (ii)  an hour   (iii) two hours   (iv)  three hours

Ans:   (i)   half an hour

(c)  The headmaster was on a leave for one
(i) day   (ii) month   (iii) year   (iv) week

Ans: (iv) week

8. Complete the following sentences with information from the text:

(a) As Swami entered the school gate, an idea occurred him.

(b) Swami stood at the entrance to his class.

(c) Father snatched the letter away from Swaminathan and tore it up.

9. Fill in the chart with information from the text:

CauseEffect
(a) Swami had a headache.(a) Swami did not do his homework.
(b) Swami never met anyone as good as Samuel.(b) Swami felt sad.
(c) The headmaster had gone on a week’s leave.(c) Swami could not deliver the letter.

Grammar in Use

10. Choose the correct alternative to complete the following sentences:

(a) Rina (take/takes/took) the bus to school everyday.  

(b) Last Monday, while we (was watching/ have been watching/ were watching) the television, the electricity went off.

(c) By this time tomorrow they (will have left/will have leave/will had left).

11. Fill in the blanks with appropriate articles and prepositions:

Arifa, the younger of the two girls, has cracked IIT, while the older one is an engineer at a multinational company.

Writing Activity

12. Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper (within 100 words) about the problems faced by commuters due to reckless driving of public vehicles.

Rules-

A letter to the Editor of a newspaper is a formal letter usually read by a large number of people. It should be to the point, clear and brief. It generally has eight parts:

  • To whom you are addressing the letter ( name,designation and address of the addressee)
  • Subject of the letter in brief
  • Greeting/ salutation
  • Body of the letter
  • Subscription
  • Signature/ name of the person writingthe letter
  • The writer’s address
  • Date

Ans:

To
The Editor,
The Statesman
4, Chowringhee Square
Kolkata – 700001

Sub: Reckless driving of public vehicles

Sir,

     Through the column of your esteemed daily, I would like to ventilate my deep concern about reckless driving of buses, cars, lorries, bikes in recent times causing a great problem to the commuters.

      Reckless driving of public vehicles has become a phenomenon in everyday life. In most cases, it is found that the drivers care little for the traffic rules. They often cross the speed limit. Undoubtedly, regulations regarding speed limits do exist in the city, but the drivers pay no heed. They drive at break-neck speed to overtake other vehicles. Their senseless competition sometimes becomes so fatal that it claims innocent people’s lives. So, it is high time that the Government should take strong and stern actions to stop reckless driving of public vehicles and thus ensure the safety of people.

      Therefore, I request you to publish an article in the newspaper about this, so that the authorities can notice and do something about it.

Thanking you.                   

Yours sincerely,
Antara Saha

16, Panchanantala Lane
Howrah – 711312
8th November 2021

Extra Comprehension Exercises

Unit 1 :

1. Choose the correct alternative to complete the following sentences:

a. Swami ought to have been in the school prayer hall at
(i) 9.00  (ii) 9.30   (iii) 9.40  (iv) 10.30

Ans:  (ii) 9.30

b. Swaminathan wailed that he had an
(i) Fever  (ii) Toothache (iii) Headache (iv) Back Pain

Ans: (iii) Headache

c. Swami changed his
(i) dress (ii) school (iii) routine (iv) tactics

Ans: (iv) tactics

2. Complete the following sentences with information from the text:

a. Mother generously suggested that Swami might stay at home.   

b. Loaf about less on Sundays and you will be without a headache on Monday.  

c. “What will the teacher think if I go so late?”

3. State whether the following statements are True or False. Providesentences/ phrases/ words in support of your answer:

a. Swami’s father told him to stay at home.     False

Supporting Statement: “Dress up and go.”  

b. Samuel was an angry man.   True

Supporting statement: He is a very angry man.

4. Answer the following questions:

a. Whom Samuel was angry with?

Ans: Samuel was especially angry with those who come in late.

b. According to Swami, why Samuel will scold him?

Ans: Samuel will scold Swami if he says that he had a headache and so he is late.

Unit 2:

1. Choose the correct alternative to complete the following sentences:

a) Swami’s head was dizzy with-
i) conscience ii) confusion iii) allegations

Ans. ii) confusion

b) Samuel’s face was-
i) bright ii) pale iii) dark

Ans. iii) dark

c) Swami’s father proposed to send a letter to –
i) the headmaster ii) Samuel iii) the class teacher

Ans. i) the headmaster

2. Complete the following sentences with information from the text:

a) The more Swami thought of Samuel, the more Swami grieved for him.

b) Swami felt he had mixed up the real and the imagined.

c) By the time Swami was ready to leave for school, his father had composed a long letter to the headmaster.

3. Answer the following questions:

a) What was Swami at all not sure about?

Ans. Swami was not at all sure if his description of Samuel had been accurate.

b) What did Swami feel about Samuel?

Ans. Swami felt Samuel had a special regard for him.

c) What did Swami’s father do after writing the letter?

Ans. After writing the letter, Swami’s father put the letter in an envelope and sealed it.

4. State whether the following statements are True or False. Provide sentences/phrases/words in support of your answer:

a) Samuel was more strict than the other teachers.    False

Supporting Statement: Samuel was not such a bad man after all. Personally, he was much more friendly than the other teachers.

b) Swami felt that he was the best boy on earth.     False

Supporting Statement: Swami went to school feeling that he was the worst boy on earth.

c) Samuel had a thin moustache and unshaven cheek.     True

Supporting Statement: To recall Samuel’s dark face, his thin moustache, unshaven cheek, and yellow coat filled Swaminathan with sorrow.

Unit 3:

1. Choose the correct alternative to complete the following sentences:

A. Swami decided to deliver the letter to the headmaster
(i) at the beginning of the day (ii) at the middle of the day (iii) at the end of the day (iv) None of these

Ans: (iii) at the end of the day

 B. “…said I shouldn’t miss school, sir.” – this was said by
(i) Swami himself (ii) Swami’s father (iii) Swami’s mother (iv) Swami’s teacher

Ans: (ii) Swami’s father

C. The bell for the last period rang at
(i) 4.00 (ii) 3.30 (iii) 3.00 (iv) 4.30

Ans: (iv) 4.30

2. Complete the following sentences with information from the text:

a. Swami thought, “you don’t know what my father has done to you.”

B. The peon told him the headmaster had gone on a week’s leave.

C. “Don’t ever come to me for help if Samuel scolds you again.”

3. State whether the following statements are True or False. Provide sentences/phrases/words in support of your answer:

a) Swami’s last period ended at 4pm.     False

Supporting Statement: When the bell rang for the last period at 4.30, Swami picked up his books and ran to the headmaster’s room.

b) Samuel was impressed by Swami’s father.   True

Supporting Statement: Samuel looked impressed. “Your father is quite right. We want more parents like him.”

c) Swami thought that Samuel would scold him for being late in the class. True

Supporting Statement: Swami hoped Samuel would scold him severely.

4. Answer the following questions:

a) When did Samuel get most angry according to Swami?

Ans: According to Swami, Samuel got most angry when he inspects the home lessons.

b) What was the unexpected question to Swami from Samuel?

Ans: Samuel asked Swami why he came to the school when he was having a headache. This was an unexpected question to Swami from Samuel.

c) Why did Swami decide to deliver the letter to the headmaster at the end of the day?

Ans: Swami decided to deliver the letter to the headmaster at the end of the day because he thought Samuel might do something during the course of the day to justify the letter.

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