English Grammar Complete Guide - Verbs Forms

English Grammar Complete Guide – Verb: Forms

What is a Verb?

Verbs are words that express action or state of being. A verb is the main ingredient of a sentence. No sentence can be completed without a verb.
[ যে Word দ্বারা কোন কাজ করা বা হওয়া বোঝায় তাকে Verb বলে। এটি sentence-এর একটি অতি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ অবিচ্ছেদ্য অংশ। Verb কে বাদ দিয়ে কোন Sentence গঠন হওয়া সম্ভব নয়। ]

Examples:

Radha is a great athlete. 
She runs really fast.
She has great strength.

 

TYPES OF VERBS

The Verbs can be divided into five different groups or ten types
1. Auxiliary and Main Verb
2. Finite and Non-finite Verb
3. Transitive and Intransitive Verb
4. Regular and Irregular Verb
5. Dynamic and Stative Verb

AUXILIARY AND MAIN VERB

Main Verb: Main verbs occur independently in a sentence and convey the complete meaning of the action.  [ Main Verb একটি বাক্যে স্বাধীনভাবে বসে এবং কর্মের সম্পূর্ণ অর্থ প্রকাশ করে। ]

Example:

I wrote a letter.
He goes to the market.

Auxiliary Verb: There are some verbs that occur along with the main verbs and indicate tense, aspect voice, mood/intention of the speaker. They are called Auxiliary verbs. [ কিছু Verb রয়েছে যা Main Verb এর সাথে বসে এবং বক্তার কাল, দৃষ্টিভঙ্গি, মেজাজ/উদ্দেশ্য নির্দেশ করে।  তাদের বলা হয় Auxiliary Verb। ]

Example:

I have been writing a letter.

Here, the last verb “writing ” is the main verb and the other two ‘have’ and ‘been’ are auxiliaries.

Auxiliary Verb, basically is of two kinds –

(a) Primary Auxiliary: These verbs function both as helping and main verbs. [ Primary Auxiliary Verb গুলি Main Verb ও Helping Verb এই দুইয়ের কাজই করে। ]

The Primary Auxiliaries are-

Primary AuxiliaryPresent Tense Past Tense
Beis, am, arewas, were
Dodo,  doesdid
Havehave, hashad

Example:

He is the boss here.
She has her own car.

(b) Modal Auxiliary: These verbs are used to change the tone and mood of the main verb. [ Modal Auxiliary Verb Main Verb এর tone এবং mood পরিবর্তন করতে ব্যবহৃত হয়। ]

The Modal Auxiliaries are –

shallcanwillmaymustought to
shouldcouldwouldmightused to

Example:

She can run fast.
You should study English.

FINITE AND NON-FINITE VERB

Finite Verb: Finite verbs change their form when there is a change in the subject or the tense. They can be indicative of number (Singular or plural). [  ]

Example:

I work hard for my family.

The verb ‘work’ becomes ‘works’ when the subject is a singular noun/pronoun.

[ উদাহরণস্বরূপ, Verb ‘work’ এর পরিবর্তে ‘works’ বসবে যখন subject singular noun বা pronoun। ]

Maya works hard for her family.
He works hard for his family.

‘Work’ becomes ‘worked’ when the sentence is in the past tense. [ উদাহরণস্বরূপ, Verb ‘work’ এর পরিবর্তে ‘worked’ বসবে যখন sentence past tense এ থাকবে। ]

I worked very hard yesterday.
He worked very hard yesterday.

Non-finite Verb: Non-finite verbs do not change their form when there is a change in the number or person of the subject. [   ]

Example:

I want to eat something delicious.
Bandana has to eat apples every day.
They want to eat eggs for breakfast.

In the above sentences, the verb ‘eat’ does not change even though the person and number of the subject change. [ উপরোক্ত বাক্য গুলিতে Subject এর person ও number পরিবর্তন হওয়া সত্বেও verb ‘eat’  এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না। ]

Non-finite verbs are of three kinds:

 (a) Gerund: The ‘-ing’ form of the verb which is used as a noun is called a gerund. It is also called the verbal noun. [ কোনো Verb এর ‘-ing’ form noun হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হলে তাকে Gerund বলে। ]

Examples:

Taking exercise is important.
Running is a good way to keep fit.

(b) Infinite: The infinitive is the base form of the verb. It is often used with ‘to’ or without ‘to’. Infinitives with ‘to’ before they are called ‘to-infinitives’. [ Verb এর মূল form টিই Infinitive হিসেবে পরিচিত, এটি সাধারণত ‘to’ সহযোগে ব্যবহৃত হয়। ]

Examples:

David and I agreed to meet at 4 o’clock.
I’ll arrange to see the dentist straight away.

(c) Participle: There are two kinds of participles:
Present participles are formed by adding ‘-ing’ to the base verb. [ Verb এর মূল form এর সাথে ‘-ing’ যুক্ত হয়ে Present Participle হয়। ]

Example:

I have been reading.

Past participles are formed by adding -d, -ed, -en, -t, or -n to the base verb. [ [ Verb এর মূল form এর সাথে -d, -ed, -en, -t or -n যুক্ত হয়ে Past Participle হয়। ]

Example:

I have worked.

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERB

Transitive Verb: A transitive verb always has a direct object – a noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb. The object shows who or what completes the action expressed in the verb. [  কোন ক্রিয়ার কর্ম সম্পাদনের জন্য যদি কর্তা ছাড়াও যদি অন্য কোন কিছুর প্রয়োজন হয় তাহলে তাকে Transitive Verb বলে।  ]

Example:

James hit the ball.
Hit is a transitive verb.
The direct object is a ball. Ball tells you what James hit. 
Roger eats a big breakfast every morning.
Eats is a transitive verb.

The direct object of eats is breakfast. Breakfast tells you what Roger eats.

Intransitive Verb: An intransitive verb does not have an object. It does not need an object to complete the action expressed in the verb. [ কোন ক্রিয়ার কর্ম সম্পাদনের জন্য কর্তা ছাড়া অন্য কিছুর প্রয়োজন না হলে তাকে Intransitive Verb বলে ।

Example:

Rosy is painting right now.
We walked carefully.

Painting and Walked are intransitive verbs. They do not have a direct object to complete or receive the action.

• Special Cases :

Verbs with Multiple Meanings – Some verbs can be either transitive or intransitive because they have multiple meanings. [ কিছু কিছু Verb transitive বা intransitive দুটিই হতে পারে যদি তাদের একাধিক ভিন্ন অর্থে ব্যবহার করা হয়। ]

For example, when used in the context of physical movement, the run is intransitive –

I ran every day when I was an athlete.
I run every morning to stay fit.

In the context of guiding or overseeing a company or other group of individuals, the run is transitive –

Joe runs his own restaurant.
Martha ran her business efficiently.

Verbs in Different Contexts – Verbs can also be either transitive or intransitive depending on context. [ কিছু কিছু Verb transitive বা intransitive দুটিই হতে পারে যদি তাদের ভিন্ন প্রসঙ্গে ব্যবহার করা হয়। ]

For example, the verb sing is normally intransitive –

 I sing rather poorly.
She sings quite beautifully.

Sing is only transitive if the sentence answers the question, “What did the subject sing?” –

I sang “Tumi Nirmala Koro” rather poorly last night.
She sang “Jana Gana Mana’’ quite beautifully last week.

REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERB

Regular Verb: Regular verbs are called search because they are predictable: both the simple past and the past participle forms add ‘d’ or ‘ed’ as suffixes to the base verb. [ যে verb গুলি তাদের মূল form এর সাথে ‘d’  বা ‘ed’ অনুশব্দ হিসেবে জুড়ে তাদের simple past ও past participle form গঠন করে তাদের Regular Verb বলে ।   ]

Example: Here are some examples,

Present (Base Verb)PastPast Participle
WantWantedWanted
CloseClosedClosed
DecayDecayedDecayed
ExplainExplainedExplained

Irregular Verb: Irregular verbs are the verbs that change their form completely when changing from base form to past and past participle and are not predictable. [Irregular Verb গুলির past ও past participle form সম্পূর্ণ ভিন্ন হয়।  ]

Example: Here are some examples,

Present (Base Verb)PastPast Participle
GoWentGone
AwakeAwokeAwoken
BurnBurntBurnt
DoDidDone

DYNAMIC AND STATIVE VERB

Dynamic Verb: Dynamic verbs (sometimes referred to as “action verbs”) usually describe actions we can take or things that happen. [ Dynamic Verb গুলি কোনো কিছু কাজ করা বা কিছু ঘটা বোঝায়। ]

Example: Here are some examples,

Dynamic VerbTypeExample
playactionShe plays tennis every Friday.
meltprocessThe snow melts every spring.
  hit  momentary actionWhen one boxer hits another, brain damage can result.

Stative Verb: Stative verbs usually refer to a state or condition which is quite static or unchanging. [ Stative Verb গুলি কোনো অবস্থা বা দশা বোঝায়। ]

Example: Here are some examples,

Stative VerbTypeExample
HateperceptionI hate chocolate.
BelieveperceptionShe believes in UFOs.
OwnrelationDev owns a national company.

**Note – we CANNOT use Stative verbs in the continuous (progressive) forms; you CAN’T say “*Yong is owning three cars.” Owning is a state, not an action, so it is always in the simple form. [ Stative Verb গুলিকে progressive form এ ব্যবহার করা যায় না । ]

 

EXERCISE

A. Mention whether the underlined verbs are Transitive or Intransitive –

1. When he arrived, nobody was there to greet him.
2. I bought a bicycle so I can go to school faster.
3. The boy laughed so much that milk came out of his nose.
4. He reads books to help him fall asleep.
5. Jim is sleeping so don’t be so loud.
6. When I lie down, I like to sleep on my back.
7. In order to catch up in class, she wrote an essay.
8. The man sneezed so hard that he fell from his chair.
9. She sat down patiently waiting for her homework.
10. For about an hour, they passed the ball back and forth.
11. The family turned off the light and went to sleep.
12. We moved the tables next to each other.
13. He puts on his winter boots because it’s so cold outside.
14. They waited but nobody helped them find their room.
15. The train stopped abruptly.

B. Fill in the blanks with the gerund form of the verbs given below.

Swim, work, wander, climb, wait, get

I can’t stand (a) _________ in a long queue. I live a (b) _________ life. I like (c) _________ in the sea. My friend likes (d) _________ the mountains. I hate (e) _________ late for any task. I like (f) _________ hard.

C. Replace the underlined words as directed.

a) He loves to dance and to sing. (gerund)
b) It is no good to get upset. (gerund)
c) The teacher told him that he should study hard. She further advised him that he should revise all the work done. (suitable infinite construction)
d) Jim has decided that he is going to buy a car this summer. (suitable infinite construction)

D. Fill in the blanks with the infinitive form of the verb given in the brackets.

a) Do you want _________ (come) to the shop with me?
b) You don’t need _________ (leave) yet—it’s not late.
c) Don’t forget _________ (take) your umbrella with you.
d) My parents are planning _________ (go) abroad.
e) They are planning _________ (bring) me an ipod.
f) How long do you expect _________ (stay) in Chandigarh?
g) _________ (learn) English quickly is not an easy thing.
h) She promised _________ (give) it as soon as possible.
i) He’s looking forward _________ (meet) all his friends again.
j) Nita’s apprehensive of _________ (hurt) her.

E. Fill in the blanks with modals of instruction or warnings. (must, have to, should, ought to, dare etc).

1. You ——— finish the food, now.
2. You——— turn off the computer after using it.
3. The rich ——— help the poor.
4. You ———- cut your hair short in the army.
5. How ———- you tell a lie to me?

F. Choose the correct Modals.

1. ——– I please speak to Javed ( can / should)
2. I ———- (would / could ) have loved to come and visit you.
3. I ———- ( will /shall ) carry the box into the house.
4. I don’t think I——— ( shall /can ) be able to climb the mountain.
5. I was afraid that if I asked him again, he———- ( can, may, might) refuse.

G. Select the correct forms of irregular verbs in the following exercises.

 1. Lillian had [become/became] so disillusioned that she [set/sat] down and cried.
2. We had [sung/sang] three songs before most of the audience had [began/begun] to show up.
3. The medic [bound/binded] the wounds while the ground [shaked/shook] from the bomb blasts.
4. Even though I [swung/swinged] the bat hard, I ended up [sitting/setting] down after the third strike.
5. The new reporter [misspelt/misspelled] so many words that it [costed/cost] him his job.
6. Sally [shrunk/shrank] from her responsibilities because the pressure had [got/gotten] too great.
7. I had [dreamed/dreamt] about eating a huge meal and [awaked/awoke] to find my pillow missing.
8. It was clear that Wilson had [chose/chosen] wisely when he asked to be [dealed/dealt] another card.
9. For 10 minutes I [felt/feeled] around for the doorway in total darkness before I finally found it and [slung/slinged] it open. 
10. Rover has [laid/lain] around the house for several days and has [ate/eaten] little food during that time.

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