English Grammar Complete Guide - Conjunctions and Interjections

English Grammar Complete Guide – Conjunctions and Interjections

What is Conjunction?

A Conjunction is a word used for joining
[1] one word to another word
[2] one word to a clause
[3] one sentence to another sentence (i.e. one clause to another clause).
(Conjunction দুটি শব্দ বা দুটি বাক্যকে বা কখনো একটি শব্দ ও একটি বাক্যাংশকে যুক্ত করার জন্য ব্যবহৃত হয়।)

 

ONE WORD JOINED TO ANOTHER WORD

When two words are joined together by a Conjunction, each is usually of a similar part of speech. (Conjunction সাধারণত একই ধরনের দুটি Part of Speech-কে যুক্ত করে।)

Thus, a noun is joined to a noun or a pronoun; a verb to a verb; an adjective to an adjective; an adverb to an adverb; and a preposition to a preposition.

Noun to Noun – Ram, and Rahim are two friends.
Noun to Pronoun – John and I do the work.
Pronoun to Pronoun – You and he are both wrong.
Verb to Verb — Lila sat down and wept. Adjective to Adjective — They are sad but hopeful.
Adverb to Adverb – A cat moves slowly and silently.
Preposition to Preposition — He has read the book through and through.

Note: ‘And’ joins similar ideas, ‘but’ joins opposite ideas; ‘or’ denotes alternative ideas. (একই ধরনের বিষয় বা ধারণাকে and দ্বারা এবং বিপরীত ধরনের বিষয়কে but দ্বারা যুক্ত করা হয়। আর এটি অথবা ওটি এরূপ বােঝাতে or হয়।)

He is strong and brave. [সে শক্তিশালী এবং সাহসী।]
He is weak but brave. [সে দুর্বল কিন্তু সাহসী।]
Do or die. [If you do not do, you will die = হয় করো, না হয় মরো।]
Do and die. [If you do, you will die = করেছো, কী মরেছ।]

 

CORRELATIVES

There are some conjunctions that go in pairs. They are called Correlatives. (কতকগুলি conjunction জোড়া-জোড়া বসে। এগুলিকে Correlative বা নিত্যসম্বন্ধী অব্যয় বলে।)

They are: both-and; either-or, neither-nor, not only-but also; so-that; such-that; no sooner-than; hardly-when; scarcely-when; else-than; else-but.

Noun to Noun– He is both a fool and a knave.
Adjective to Adjective — He is both wise and good.
Adjective to Adjective— He is not only wise but also good.
Verb to Verb – He must either work or go. Adverb to Adverb – He behaved neither wisely nor kindly.

 

ONE WORD JOINED TO A CLAUSE [clause = সমাপিকা ক্রিয়াযুক্ত বাক্যাংশ]

Adv. and Clause – He is so weak that he cannot walk.
Adv. and Clause – Such was her beauty that everybody loved her.
Adv. and Clause – No sooner had I sat down than they left the room.
Adv. and Clause – Hardly had I left the room when it began to rain.
Adv. and Clause – Scarcely had I left the room when it began to rain.
Adv. and Clause – She has none else than her mother. 
Adv. and Clause – She has none else but her mother.

Note : In a clause beginning with no sooner, hardly and scarcely the auxiliary verb precedes the subject. [No sooner, hardly বা scarcely দিয়ে clause শুরু হলে subject- এর পূর্বে auxiliary verb বা সাহায্যকারী ক্রিয়া বসে।]

Also note that no sooner takes ‘than’ but hardly and scarcely take ‘when’ as Correlative. [No sooner-এর পরে than বসে; কিন্তু hardly ও Scarcely-র পরে when বসে।]

 

ONE CLAUSE JOINED TO ANOTHER CLAUSE

[A clause is a shorter sentence within a bigger sentence–clause হল বড় বাক্যের মধ্যে একটি ছােট বাক্য।]
Among those Conjunctions, which join one clause or one sentence to another clause or another sentence, the most common can be seen from the following examples. (যে সব Conjunction একটি বাক্য বা clause-এর সঙ্গে আর একটি বাক্য বা clause-কে যুক্ত করে, তাদের মধ্যে সর্বাধিক ব্যবহৃত উদাহরণগুলি নিম্নরূপ) :

First part of sentenceConjunctionSecond part of sentence
My father says thatthis book is mine.
He works hardthat /so thathe may succeed.
I trust his wordbecausehe speaks the truth.
The girl will comeifshe is allowed to do so.
I wish to knowwhetherhe will come or not.
She walked slowlylestshe should fall down.
He will do thisunlesshe is stopped by you.
You may go out as/sincethe rain has stopped.
I wish to knowhowthe sick man is today.
He left his bedwhenthe sun peeped in the room.
No one could find outwherethe rogue was lying hid.
No one could tellwhence the noise arose.
The mice will playwhilethe cat is away.
You must wait heretill/untilyour father comes back.
They could not tellwhythey were fined.
The girl is quickand(she) reads very well.
The girl is cleverbut(she) cannot do the work.
She went to bedfor/asshe felt very tired.
He closed the doorafterhis friends had gone.
He had his house cleanedbeforehis friends came.
I will trust youprovidedyou sign your name.
He will not escape deathhoweverrich he may be.
He left the houseas soon asthe rain stopped.
He could not passthoughhe tried often.
Your uncle is olderthanyour aunt (is).
It is a long timesince I saw you last.
 

KINDS OF CONJUNCTION FOR JOINING CLAUSES

Conjunctions are of two types:
(1) Co-ordinating,
(2) Subordinating. 
   

Co-ordinating Conjunctions are of four types : 
(a) Cumulative (সংযোজক)—and, both … and, as well as etc.
(b) Alternative (বিকল্পবাচক)—or, either….or, neither….. nor etc.
(c) Adversative -(বৈপরীত্যসূচক )—but, yet, still etc.
(d) Illative (সিদ্ধান্তবাচক)—so, therefore, etc.

Subordinating Conjunctions denote time, place, cause, effect, purpose, manner, condition, comparison, apposition (e.g. He wrote to us that he would come.), and concession (e.g. However strong you may be, you cannot do this.)

 

CONJUNCTIONS [ LINKING WORDS ]

(i) Co-ordinating Conjunction: Joins clauses of equal ranks of a compound sentence.

Some of the important Co-ordinating Conjunctions and their uses are best described below :

Indication (নির্দেশ)Co-ordinating ConjunctionsSentence
Addition (সংযােজন)And Both-and   As well as   Not only—but also AlsoI read and he writes. Both he and his brother will go. He as well as his brother will go. Not only he but his brother also will go. He was there, and also you.
Choice between two things(দুটি জিনিসের মধ্যে একটি বোঝাতে)Either-or Neither-nor   Or OtherwiseEither he or his brother will go. Neither he nor his brother will go. Read or you will fail. Work hard, otherwise, you will fail.
Contrast between two ideas (দুটি বিপরীত ধরনের বিরোধিতা করা)But, yet, still   However Nevertheless   On the contrary   While, whereas OnlyHe is poor, but (yet, still) he is honest. You are guilty; however, I pardon you this time. I am ill; nevertheless, I shall compete. I do not hate him; on the contrary, I love him. You failed; while (whereas) your brother passed. You may come; only make no noise.  
Inference (সিদ্ধান্তে আসা)Therefore, so, consequently   ForHe did not work hard: therefore (so, consequently) he failed. I do not like him, for he is a wicked boy.

(ii) Subordinating Conjunction: Joins subordinate clauses to the principal clause of a complex sentence. 

Note the different Subordinating Conjunctions and their uses :

Indication (নির্দেশ)Subordinating ConjunctionsSentence
Time (সময়)Till, until After   Before When While Since  Wait till it is night. Wait until I return. He came after I had left. He died before he could do the work.  He came when I was there. Don’t go out while it rains. I have not seen him since I came. 
Cause or reason (কারণ)As, since BecauseAs (Since) I am ill, I cannot go. He cannot work because he is ill.
Purpose (কারণ)That, in order that, so that   LestHe works hard that (in order that or so that) he may win the prize. I worked hard lest I should fail.
Condition (শর্ত)If Unless Whether or not   ProvidedI shall go if you come. I shall fail unless you help me. I shall go there, whether you like it or not. I shall help you provided you obey me.
AppositionThatHe wrote to us that he would come.
Effect (ফল)So – that   Such – thatHe worked so hard that he fell ill. He is such a fool that I cannot rely on him.
Comparison(তুলনা বোঝাতে)As — as Than So – asHe is as tall as you. He is taller than you (are). I am not so tall as you (are).
Manner (ঢং, প্রণালী)As – so According as   As if, as thoughAs you sow, so shall you reap. They will be chosen according as they are fit. He behaves as if (or as though) he were (not is) mad.  
ConcessionThough, (although)   As However   Whoever WhateverThough (although) he is poor, he is honest. Poor as (though) I am, I am honest. However strong he may be, he cannot do this. Whoever you may be, I cannot allow you here. Whatever you may say, I do not believe you.
 

SENTENCE LINKERS OR CONNECTORS

Some words provide links with different independent sentences to maintain a flow of expression. These words or expressions are called Sentence Linkers or Sentence Connectors. [কিছু শব্দ দুটি স্বাধীন বাক্যের প্রবাহ বজায় রাখতে ব্যবহৃত হয়। এগুলিকে Sentence Linker বা Sentence Connector বলে।]

There is a difference between the Conjunction or the Linking word and the Sentence Linker.[Conjunction এবং Sentence Linker-এর মধ্যে কিছু পার্থক্য আছে।]

Conjunctions or Linking WordsSentence Linkers or Sentence Connectors
(i) Join words, clauses, or sentences.(i) Help in maintaining the flow between consecutive sentences.
(ii) Used within a sentence.(ii) Used between two sentences.

Examples of Sentence Linkers : [Full stop or semicolon may be used between the sentences.]

Sentence LinkersExamples
However/NeverthelessYou are late. However/ Nevertheless, you may start your action.
IndeedHe is honest. Indeed, he is respected by all.
BesidesHe gave me a lodging. Besides, he provided me with a job.
Therefore/ConsequentlyHe is ill. Therefore/ Consequently, you should call in a doctor.
ActuallyHe got the first prize. Actually, he scored the highest marks.
NaturallyHer son died. Naturally, she is upset.
FinallyThe police searched the house. Finally, they found the stolen goods.
After allYou should not disregard him. After all, he is a senior.
Any wayIt’s too late now. Anyway, you can try.
For examplePride begets fall. For example, Duryodhan was ruined.
In factI helped him. In fact, he is my relative.
As a resultHe was ill. As a result, he could not score any goal.
OnlyYou may come. Only, make no noise.
Of courseWould you take a little more milk? Of course not.
On the wholeI could not answer all the questions. On the whole, it was satisfactory.
On the contraryI do not hate him. On the contrary, I love him.
 

**SOME IMPORTANT RULES :

(i) Lest, till, and until should not be followed by not. (Lest, till এবং until –  এর পরে not বসে না।)
Wait till/ until the train stops. (Cor.)
Wait till/ until the train does not stop. (Incor.)
Work hard lest you should fail. (Cor.) [‘Should’ is placed after ‘lest’.]
Work hard lest you may not fail. (Incor.)
*The modern idiomatic construction after ‘lest’ is should.

(ii) So that, in order that is followed by may or might, shall or should but never by can or could or will or would. (So that, in order that – এর পরে may/might, shall/ should বসে; can/could বা will/would বসে না।)
He encouraged me so that/ in order that I might not lose heart. (Cor.)
He encouraged me so that/ in order that I would not lose heart. (Incor.)

(iii) Because and therefore should not be used in the same sentence. (একই বাক্যে because এবং therefore ব্যবহার হয় না।)

(iv) ‘While’ may be used as co-ordinating conjunction or subordinating conjunction according to its sense. (While অর্থ অনুযায়ী co-ordinating অথবা subordinating conjunction হতে পারে।)
You failed while your brother passed. [ while = but (co-ordinate conjunction)]
Make haste while the sun shines. [ while = till (subordinates conjunction)]

(v) As if, as though should invariably be followed by a past conditional, not by a present form (would, not will; could, not can; did, not does; was/ were, not is /are; had gone, not has gone; knew, not knows)

(vi) So that (যাতে) denotes purpose (উদ্দেশ্য). But, So ….. that (এমন যে ) denotes effect. Such ….. that also denotes effect.
So ….. that: He worked so hard that he fell ill.
Such ….. that: He is such a fool that I cannot rely on him.

(vii) As …. as denotes comparison in the positive degree in an Affirmative sentence. (As ….. as হ্যাঁ – বাচক বাক্যে positive degree-র তুলনা বােঝায়।)
As ….. as: I am as tall as you (are). [আমি তোমার মত লম্বা।]

(viii) So ….. as denotes comparison in the positive degree in a Negative sentence. (So…. as না-বাচক বাক্যে positive degree-র তুলনা বােঝায়।)
So ….. as: I am not so tall as you (are). [আমি তোমার মত লম্বা নই।] 

(ix) Provided denotes the sense of if (যদি).
Provided: I shall help you provided you obey me.

(x) However, Whatever, Whoever denote concession.
However: However strong he may be, he cannot do this.
Whatever: Whatever you may say, I do not believe you.
Whoever: Whoever you may be, I cannot allow you to come here.

 

INTERJECTION [ অনন্বয়ী অব্যয় বা আবেগসূচক অব্যয় ]

What is Interjection?

An Interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feeling. [যে শব্দ মনের আকস্মিক আবেগ প্রকাশ করে, তাকে Interjection বলে। প্রকৃতপক্ষে বাক্যের অন্য শব্দের সঙ্গে সম্বন্ধ না থাকলেও মনের আবেগ প্রকাশের জন্য Sentence-এর ভেতরে (= Inter) যে word বা sound ছুঁড়ে দেওয়া (= jection) হয়, তাকে Interjection বলে।]

নীচের Sentence-গুলিতে এর ব্যবহার দেখাে:
ওহে রমেশ ! কেমন আছ? Hallo, Ramesh! How do you do?
হায়! ইন্দিরা গান্ধী আর জীবিত নেই। Alas! Indira Gandhi is no more.
কী মজা, আজ আমাদের ছুটি। Hurrah! Today is a holiday.
আহা! কী সুন্দর দৃশ্য। Oh! What nice view.
ধিক! তুমি মিথ্যাবাদী। Fie! You are a liar.
সাবাস! তুমি খুব ভালাে করেছ। Bravo! You have done well.

উপরের বাক্যগুলিতে Alas শব্দের সাহায্যে দুঃখ, Hurrah শব্দের সাহায্যে আনন্দ, Oh-শব্দের সাহায্যে বিস্ময়, Fie শব্দের সাহায্যে ঘৃণা এবং Bravo শব্দের সাহায্যে উৎসাহ প্রকাশ করা হয়েছে। এগুলি সবই মনের আকস্মিক আবেগ।

মনে রাখবে, Interjection-এর পর Note of Exclamation বা আবেগসূচক চিহ্ন বসাতে হয়। [ Note of Exclamation-এর ‘বিস্ময়চিহ্ন’নামকরণ ভুল; কারণ বিস্ময় মনের অনেকগুলি আবেগের মধ্যে একটি মাত্র।]

Interjections may express:
(a) Joy (আনন্দ): Hurrah! How! [ How nice to meet you! ]
(b) Grief (দুঃখ): Alas! [ Alas! The man is dead. ]
(c) Surprise (বিস্ময়): Ah! Ha! What! How! ইত্যাদি।
(d) Encouragement (উৎসাহ): Bravo! ইত্যাদি।

Certain groups of words are also used to express some sudden feeling or emotion. (মনের আকস্মিক আবেগ প্রকাশের জন্য অনেকসময় কিছু groups of words-ও ব্যবহৃত হয়।) Ah me! For shame! Well done! etc.

Note: An Interjection, grammatically speaking, is not a part of speech as it has no connection with any other word of the sentence. But, in a broader sense, an Interjection is a part of our speech. Hence it is included as a part of speech in grammar.

 

INTERJECTIONAL PHRASES

অনেক সময় একাধিক word দিয়ে Interjectional Phrase তৈরি হয়।

Good morning! Good day! Good afternoon! Good evening! (বিভিন্ন সময়ের স্বাগত সম্ভাষণ)
Good bye! (যে কোনাে সময়ে বিদায় সম্ভাষণ)।
Good night! (রাত্রিকালীন বিদায় সম্ভাষণ)
Good heavens! Good gracious! (হা ঈশ্বর!)
For shame! (কী লজ্জা!)
How awful! (কী ভয়ানক!)
What a mess! (কী কাণ্ড!)
Well done! (বেশ করেছ!)

 

EXERCISE

1. Identify the conjunctions in the following sentences.

i) I need to work hard, so that I can pass the exam.
ii) I waited for him until he arrived.
iii) Although he was the best candidate, he didn’t win the elections.
iv) They canceled the match because it rained.
v) When you come back from your trip, we’ll meet to discuss the problem.
vi) We eat so that we may live.
vii) They said that the movie was fantastic, so I watched it.
viii) Unless you give me the keys to the safe, you will be shot.
ix) Although he was very ill, he didn’t take any medicine.
x) I don’t know where I can buy a pair of jeans.
xi) Although she was tired, she managed to do it.
xii) She went to the shops, but couldn’t find anything that could fit her needs.
xiii) If you do not mend your ways, you will land in trouble.
xiv) Everybody likes him because he is nice and helpful.
xv) They tried to dissuade him but he persisted.
xvi) Since he was angry with her, he didn’t utter a word.
xvii) Though she is a millionaire, she is very humble.
xviii) Keep quiet or go out.
xix) He is either a genius or a lunatic.
xx) She talks as if she knew everything.

2. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate conjunction.

i) This is the place…………… we stayed last time we visited. (where, when, how)
ii) She is a nice woman ……………………. I really don’t like her. (but, and, or)
iii) The musicians delivered a rousing performance……………. they had rehearsed often. (though, as, once)
iv) Be your own person ………………….. don’t imitate others. (and, but, or)
v) I’m afraid of heights,……………. I appreciate the view from the top of this building. (and, yet, nor)
vi) ………………… people wear to the party is immaterial. (What, That, Which)
vii) Do you like chocolate……………… vanilla ice cream better? (or, nor, and)
viii) He is an iconoclast ……………………. does not believe in organized religion. (who, which)
ix) I have to go to work at six,………….. I’m waking up at four. (but, so, yet)
x) I will call you …………………… I reach home. (as soon as, as long as)
xi) I could not get a seat,…………… I came early. (as, though, when)
xii) The play was so humorous …………………….. the audience laughed all through it. (that, such that, so that)
xiii) We are leaving Wednesday……………… or not it rains. (if, whether, though)
xiv) The boy …………………… watch had been stolen complained to the police. (who, whose, who’s)
xv) I have to be on time,…………….. my boss will be annoyed if I’m late. (and, nor, for)
xvi) It was …………………… a frightening experience that still gives me shivers. (such, so, very)
xvii) Nadia doesn’t like to drive,………….. she takes the bus everywhere. (but, yet, so)
xviii) You won’t pass the test………… you study. (when, if, unless)
xix) I was on time,………………. everyone else was late. (so, but, for)
xx) Write this down…………… you forget. (or, when, lest)

3. Join each pair of the following sentences by means of suitable conjunction.

i) Jaya dances. Her sister does not dance.
ii) A banyan tree is tall. A palm is taller.
iii) Ananya hasn’t come. Meeta hasn’t come.
iv) It was raining hard. I stayed at home.
v) She speaks English. She speaks Hindi.
vi) The movie was over. We went home.
vii) I like him. He is very sincere.
viii) You have to wear a proper uniform. It is compulsory.
ix) He did not win. He worked hard.
x) I saw my school bus coming. I immediately ran toward it.
xi) She is ill. She is cheerful.
xii) Nisha won the first prize. She was the best orator.
xiii) We decided to go out. It was raining.
xiv) Preeti stood first in the competition. We congratulated her.
xv) The piper played. The children danced.

4.  Identify the interjections in the following sentences.

i) Hey! You left me behind.
ii) Uh oh! The police have caught him.
iii) Ouch! That soup is hot.
iv) Of course! I’ll make all the arrangements for your birthday.
v) Oops! The plate broke.
vi) Hello! How do you do?
vii) Ouch! It’s paining badly.
viii) Hurray! We won the game.
ix) Ugh! The printer has jammed again, and today I must get to class on time.
x) Wow! John hit the ball far.
xi) Whoa! You have jumped to a hasty conclusion that the evidence does not support.
xii) Hurray! I saw something scary in the cave.
xiii) Alas! She’s dead now.
xiv) Alas! I cannot go with you.
xv) Shh! I heard something.
xvi) Ah, I see what you mean.

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