English Grammar Complete Guide - Adverbs

English Grammar Complete Guide – Adverb

What is an Adverb?

An Adverb is a word used to modify any part of Speech (except a Noun or Pronoun) or a whole sentence.
[Adverb হল এমন Word যা বাক্যে Noun বা Pronoun ছাড়া যে-কোনাে Part of Speech-কে অথবা একটি গােটা বাক্যকে modify বা বিশেষিত করতে পারে। মনে রাখা দরকার, Interjection (Hurrah! Hallo! ইত্যাদি) বাক্য থেকে আলাদা হয়ে বসে বলে একে এখন তার Part of Speech ধরা হয় না।]

Examples:
1. The fox runs quickly. (quickly modifies runs, a verb)
2. Lila is a very beautiful girl. (very modifies beautiful, an adjective)
3. She sings extremely well. (extremely modifies well, an adverb)
4. The bird flew exactly over our heads. (exactly modifies over, a preposition)
5. I dislike him simply because he is a liar. (simply modifies because, a conjunction)
6. He has hardly any friends. (hardly modifies any, a determiner)
7. The machine is completely out of order. (completely modifies out of order, a phrase)
8. Unfortunately, he could not continue his studies. (unfortunately modifies the whole sentence)

 

KINDS OF ADVERB

Adverbs are divided into three main categories –
(A) Simple Adverb
(B) Relative Adverb
(C) Interrogative Adverb

SIMPLE ADVERBS

Simple Adverbs are of eight kinds (Simple Adverb আট প্রকার):
1. Adverb of Time
2. Adverb of Place
3. Adverb of Manner
4. Adverb of Degree
5. Adverb of Reason or Purpose
6. Adverb of Affirmation and Negation
7. Intensifiers 
8. Downtoners

Time

When? ( He came here yesterday.)
How long? (Dhiraj frequently goes to Delhi.)
How often? (I have told you twice.)

(কখন, কতক্ষণ বা কতবার কোনাে কাজ সম্পন্ন হয় তা বােঝাতে Adverb of Time ব্যবহার করা হয়। এধরণের Adverb -গুলি হল–Now, then, before, since, ago, already, always, seldom, often, once, twice, thrice, again, soon, late, afterward, yesterday, today, tomorrow, daily, early, formerly, frequently, presently, immediately, instantly ইত্যাদি)

Place :

Where? (Stand here. / Go there. / Come in.)
Wherefrom? (This news has been collected locally.)

(কাজটি কোথায় হচ্ছে বা কোথা থেকে হচ্ছে বোঝাতে Adverb of Place ব্যবহার করা হয়। Adverb-গুলি হল — Here, there, hither, thither, hence, thence, far, near, nearby, away, ahead, overhead, inland, locally, universally ইত্যাদি। এছাড়া in, out, up, above, below, inside, outside, within, without প্রভৃতি Preposition-গুলি Adverb হয়ে বসতে পারে—He went up the hill.)

Manner :

How? (Bhola reads clearly.) 
In what manner? (The boy has been badly treated.)

(কীভাবে কোনাে কাজ সম্পন্ন হয় তা বােঝাতে Adverb of Manner ব্যবহার হয়। এ ধরনের Adverb গুলি হল– Clearly, closely, correctly, bravely, badly, sadly, softly, steadily, soundly, swiftly, simply, suddenly, carefully, carelessly, easily, quickly, probably, luckily, fortunately, unfortunately, naturally, rightly, urgently, wrongly, slowly, possibly, widely, thus, well – ইত্যাদি।)

4. Degree :

How much? (She is quite happy.)
To what extent? (I am rather busy.)

(কোনাে কাজ কতটা বা কী পরিমাণ সম্পন্ন হয় তা বােঝাতে Adverb of Degree ব্যবহার হয়। এ ধরনের Adverb গুলি হল– Almost, quite, very, much, fully, partly, wholly, completely, strongly, totally, entirely, deeply, greatly, poorly, half, enough, somewhat, altogether, too, little, a little, rather ইত্যাদি।)

5. Reason or Purpose :

Reason (He is ill so he cannot go to school.)
Purpose (He works hard so that he can succeed.)

 (কোনো কাজের কারণ বা উদ্দেশ্য বোঝাতে Adverb of Reason or Purpose ব্যবহার হয়। এ ধরনের Adverb গুলি হল —Hence, therefore, so, so that ইত্যাদি।)

6. Affirmation and Negation :

Affirmation (Yes, I know him.)
Negation (I have never heard it.)

(হ্যাঁ-বাচক বা না-বাচক শব্দ Adverb রূপে ব্যবহৃত হতে পারে। এ ধরনের Adverb-গুলি হল — yes, not, never ইত্যাদি। তবে ‘no’ Adverb নয়, Adjective – He has no enemy.)

7. Intensifies :

(He would certainly go there.)
(Surely it is a pickpocket.)

(যে Adverb-গুলি Verb-এর কাজের উপর বিশেষভাবে জোর দেয়, সেগুলিকে Intensifier বলে। যেমন – actually, certainly, surely, definitely, really, absolutely, thoroughly, utterly, very much, indeed ইত্যাদি।)

8. Downtoner :

(I can hardly see it.)
(This soup is rather hot.)

(যে Adverb-গুলি Verb, Adjective বা অন্য কোনাে Adverb-এর গুরুত্ব কমিয়ে দেয়, সেগুলিকে downtoner বলে। যেমন – hardly, barely, scarcely, nearly, rather ইত্যাদি।)

RELATIVE ADVERB & CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB

The Relative Adverb joins two sentences together and shows its relation to its antecedent expressed or understood. (Relative Adverb দুটি বাক্যকে যুক্ত করে এবং তার উক্ত বা অনুক্ত Antecedent বা পূর্ববর্তী word-এর সঙ্গে সম্পর্ক বুঝিয়ে দেয়।
* Relative Adverb-এর Antecedent না থাকলে তাকে Conjunctive Adverb বলে।
A Relative Adverb makes a Relative Clause. But a Conjunctive Adverb makes an Adverbial Clause or a Noun Clause. (একটি Relative Adverb-এর দ্বারা Relative Clause হয়। কিন্তু একটি Conjunctive Adverb দ্বারা একটি Adverbial Clause বা একটি Noun Clause হয়।)

Examples:

Antecedent expressed :

Show me the house where he was born. (Antecedent ‘house’) [Relative Clause with Relative Adverb]
Do you know the time when the Rajdhani Mail arrives? (Antecedent ‘time’) [Relative Clause with Relative Adverb]

Antecedent omitted :

You may go where you like. (Antecedent the ‘place’ omitted) [Adverbial Clause with Conjunctive Adverb ‘where’]
We do not know how it is done. (Antecedent the ‘process’ omitted) [Noun Clause with Conjunctive Adverb ‘how’]

** A Relative Adverb, like a Relative Pronoun relates or refers back to its Antecedent. (Relative Adverb-গুলি Relative Pronoun-এর মতাে তার পূর্ববর্তী Antecedent-এর সঙ্গে সম্পর্কযুক্ত হয়। এ ধরনের Relative Adverb-গুলি হল where, when, why এবং how; এগুলি বাক্যের মাঝে বসে, কখনােই বাক্যের গােড়ায় বসে না।)

INTERROGATIVE ADVERB [For Wh-Questions]

When Adverbs are used in asking questions, they are called Interrogative Adverbs. [প্রশ্ন জিজ্ঞাসা করতে যে সমস্ত Adverb ব্যবহার হয়, সেগুলিকে Interrogative Adverb বলে।]

Examples:
Interrogative Adverb of Place: Where is Rahman?
Interrogative Adverb of Time: When did he come?
Interrogative Adverb of Reason: Why are you late?
Interrogative Adverb of Manner: How did he do this?
Interrogative Adverb of Number: How many boys are there?
Interrogative Adverb of Quantity: How much milk would you take?
Interrogative Adverb of Frequency: How often are the pups born?
Interrogative Adverb of Degree: How far was the report true?

(মনে রাখবে, who, whose, whom, which এবং what এগুলি Interrogative Pronoun আর where, when, why, how, how many, how much, how often, how far, how long, how high ইত্যাদি Interrogative Adverb.)

 

FORMATION OF ADVERBS

(i) Most of the Adverbs are formed by adding ‘ly’ to an Adjective : (Adjective এর সঙ্গে -ly যােগ করে বেশির ভাগ Adverb গঠিত হয়।

Adjectives+ lyAdverbs
badlybadly
sadlysadly
bravelybravely
hardlyhardly
honestlyhonestly
kindlykindly
cruellycruelly
cleverlycleverly
certainlycertainly
clearlyclearly
correctlycorrectly
quicklyquickly
quietlyquietly
loudlyloudly
locallylocally 
 greatlygreatly
softlysoftly
deeplydeeply
rightlyrightly 
partial lypartially
urgentlyurgently
poorlypoorly
proudlyproudly
stronglystrongly
soundlysoundly
slowlyslowly
suddenlysuddenly
surelysurely
reallyreally
instantlyinstantly
privatelyprivately
presentlypresently
formerlyformerly
frequentlyfrequently
fortunatelyfortunately
wronglywrongly
widelywidely
totallytotally
definitelydefinitely
actuallyactually
absolutelyabsolutely
thoroughlythoroughly
utterlyutterly
carefullycarefully
cheerfullycheerfully
hopefullyhopefully
beautifullybeautifully
meaningfullymeaningfully
carelesslycarelessly
hopelesslyhopelessly

ii) Adjectives ending in ‘le’: ‘e’ is dropped and ‘y’ is added. (Adjective-এর শেষে ‘le’ থাকলে ‘e’ বাদ যায় এবং ‘y’ যোগ হয়।)

Adjectives+ lyAdverbs
singlelysingly
doublelydoubly
suitablelysuitably
horriblelyhorribly
terriblelyterribly
possiblelypossibly
probablelyprobably
wholelywholly

(iii) A few Adjectives ending in ‘Il’: only ‘y’ is added. (Adjective এর শেষে ‘ll’ থাকলে শুধু ‘y’ যােগ হয়।)

Adjectives+ lyAdverbs
fulllyfully
dulllydully

(iv) A few Adjectives ending in ‘e’ : ‘e’ is dropped and ‘ly’ is added. (Adjective এর শেষে, ‘e’ থাকলে ‘e’ বাদ যায় এবং ‘ly’ যােগ হয়।)

Adjectives+ lyAdverbs
truelytruly
duelyduly
unduelyunduly

(v) Adjectives ending in ‘y’ change into ‘i’ and then ‘ly’ is added. (Adjective এর শেষে ‘y’ থাকলে ‘i’ -তে পরিবর্তিত হয় এবং তারপর ‘ly’ যােগ হয়।)

Adjectives+ lyAdverbs
easylyeasily
lazylylazily
heavylyheavily
happylyhappily
noisylynoisily
luckylyluckily
readylyreadily
satisfactorylysatisfactorily

(vi) Adjectives ending in ‘ic’: ‘ally’ is added. (Adjective – এর শেষে ‘ic’ থাকলে ‘ally’ যােগ হয়।)

Adjectives+ lyAdverbs
automaticlyautomatically
economiclyeconomically
tragiclytragically

(vii) Some Adjectives take new words as Adverbs.

কিছু Adjective থেকে নতুন Adverb হয়। যেমন – Good – Well (He played well.) Bad – Worse (The situation is getting worse.)

(viii) There is a class of Adverbs which are derived from the Pronouns: He, who, that. (Pronouns he, who, that থেকে কতকগুলি Adverb তৈরী হয়।)

PronounAdverbs
  He That WhoPlace Motion to Motion from Time Manner here hither hence     there thither thence then thus where whither whence when how

(ix) Many of the above Adverbs are compounded with Prepositions. (উপরের Adverb-গুলি আবার Preposition-এর সঙ্গে যুক্ত হয়ে কিছু নূতন Adverb তৈরি করে।)

Here > Hereby, herefrom, herein, hereupon, herewith, hereafter. Hither > hitherto. Hence > henceforth, henceforward.

Herewith find a cheque of one thousand rupee.

I won’t allow it henceforth.

There > Thereby, therefrom, therein, thereof, thereon, therewith, thereafter. Thence > thenceforth, thenceforward.

Where > Wherein, whereon, whereof, wherefrom.

(x) Some Adverbs are made up of a qualifying Adjective and a Noun. (একটি qualifying Adjective এবং একটি Noun যােগ করে কতকগুলি Adverb হয়।) যেমন – sometimes, meantime, meanwhile, yesterday, midday, midnight, midway.

(xi) Some Adverbs are a combination of a Preposition and a Noun. (একটি Preposition এবং একটি Noun যুক্ত হয়ে কতকগুলি Adverb হয়।) যেমন – away, along, ahead, abroad, aloud, asleep, (away = on way) behind, below, besides, today,

tomorrow, overhead, overboard.

(xii) Two Adverbs sometimes go together, joined by the Conjunction ‘and’ . (কখনো কখনাে দুটি Adverb ‘and’ দ্বারা যুক্ত হয়ে একসঙ্গে বসে। যেমন –

again and again (I warned him again and again.)

far and near (His fame has spread far and near.)

far and wide (As a statesman he saw far and wide.)

far and away (This is far and away the best course.)

now and then (Now and then he writes to me.)

once and again (You must not read such trash once and again.)

through and through (He has read Milton through and through.)

thus and thus (Thus and thus only we shall succeed.)

Adjectives and Adverbs in the same form :

Some words are used sometimes as Adjectives and sometimes as Adverbs. The manner in which they are used identifies them. (কিছু কিছু শব্দ Adjective এবং Adverb দুভাবেই ব্যবহৃত হতে পারে।)

WordsAdjectiveAdverb
earlyHe is an early riser.He started early.
fastHe is a fast runner.He runs fast.
hardIt is hard work.He works hard all day.
loudHe speaks in a loud voice.Don’t sing so loud.
enoughI have enough food.She sings well enough.
bestHe is the best boy in the class.Try your best.
wellI am well now.He has done well.

Adverb with two forms:

close closelyclear clearlydeep deeplydear dearlyeasy easilyfine finelydirect directly
hard hardlyhigh highlylate latelyloud loudlynear nearlypretty prettilytight tightly

Usage: I want to deal with him direct. He came to me directly for help.

I closed the door tight. She closed her lips tightly.

Biren speaks very loud. He sings very loudly.

Time runs easy. Time runs easily.

Two forms with different meanings:

He works hard. (কঠিন পরিশ্রম করে) I have hardly any money. (প্রায় না)

He arrived late. (দেরি করে) I have not seen him lately. (সম্প্রতি)

Stand near. (নিকটে) Lila and Bela are nearly related. (ঘনিষ্ঠভাবে)

 

POSITION OF ADVERBS

(i) Adverbs of Manner; Place and Time are placed after the intransitive verb or after the object of a transitive verb.(Adverb of Manner, Adverb of Place এবং Adverb of Time প্রায়ই Verb-এর পরে বসে; আর যদি object থাকে, তবে object-এর পরে বসে।)

It is raining heavily. (Adverb of manner)
He will come here. (Adverb of place)
I met him yesterday. (Adverb of time)

(ii) But Adverbs of frequency that answer the question ‘How often?’ are normally put before the verb or between the helping verb and the main verb if there is any helping verb. ( কিন্তু Adverb of frequency সাধারণত Verb-এর পূর্বে বসে। আর Helping verb এবং Main verb থাকলে Helping verb এবং Main verb-এর মাঝে বসে।)এরূপ Adverb গুলি হল—always, often, never, seldom, rarely, usually, generally, sometimes, frequently ইত্যাদি।

He always speaks the truth.
We usually have breakfast at eight in the morning.
She has never seen a tiger.
I have often told him to read clearly.

But the following adverbs are always placed after the ‘be’ verb (i.e. is/am/ are/ was/ were). (কিন্তু নীচের Adverb-গুলি সর্বদাই ‘be’ verb-এর পরে বসে।)

He is always busy. He is usually busy.
She is never late for school. She is often late for her school.

**Note: An Adverb is usually placed between a Helping Verb and a Main Verb (সাধারণত Helping Verb এবং Main Verb-এর মাঝে Adverb বসে।)

I shall certainly miss her. He is still waiting for me.

(iii) When an Adverb modifies an Adjective or another Adverb, the Adverb usually comes before it. (Adverb কোনো Adjective বা অন্য কোনো  Adverb কে modify করলে ঐ Adjective বা Adverb-এর পূর্বে বসে।)

The book is very interesting.
The dog is quite dead.
Dhiren is a rather lazy boy.
Do not walk so fast.

But the Adverb ‘enough’ is always placed after the word it modifies. (কিন্তু ‘enough’ যাকে modify করে তার পরে বসে।)

You would be kind enough to grant me leave.

(iv) An Adverb may be placed at the beginning of a sentence for modifying a whole sentence, for emphasising and for asking questions. (সম্পূর্ণ বাক্যকে বিশেষিত করার জন্য, জোরের সঙ্গে কিছু বলার জন্য অথবা প্রশ্ন জিজ্ঞাসার জন্য Adverb বাক্যের প্রথমে বসতে পারে।)

Fortunately, he was saved.
Down went the Titanic.
Where has he gone?

(v) When there are two or more Adverbs after a Verb, the normal order is : Manner, Place and Time [ MPT ] (যখন দুই বা ততােধিক Adverb একটি Verb-এর পরে বসে, তখন সেগুলি সাজাবার সাধারণ নিয়ম হল আগে Manner, পরে Place এবং সবশেষে Time–MPT)

Runa sang / sweetly (M) / in the town hall (P) / last evening. (T)
He worked / hard (M) / yesterday. (T)
I shall go / there (P) / early. (T)

 

COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

Some Adverbs have three forms—Positive, Comparative & Superlative. (Adjective-এর মতাে কিছু Adverb-এরও Positive, Comparative এবং Superlative এই তিনটি form-এ তুলনা হয়।)

1. কিছু Adverb-এর পর -er যােগে Comparative এবং – est যােগে Superlative হয়।

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
Fastfasterfastest
Latelaterlatest, last
Soonsoonersoonest
Quickquickerquickest

2. যে সব Adverb-এর শেষে -ly থাকে তার পূর্বে more বসিয়ে Comparative এবং most বসিয়ে Superlative করা হয়।

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
Clearlymore clearlymost clearly
Loudlymore loudlymost loudly
Quicklymore quicklymost quickly
Rapidlymore rapidlymost rapidly
Easilymore easilymost easily
Swiftlymore swiftlymost swiftly
Wiselymore wiselymost wisely
Beautifullymore beautifullymost beautifully
Skillfullymore skillfullymost skillfully
Early (Exception)earlierearliest

3. কতকগুলি Adverb-এর Comparison কোনাে বাঁধাধরা নিয়মে হয় না।

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
Well (ভালােভাবে)betterbest
Badly (খারাপভাবে)worseworst
Far (দূরে, আরও)farther, furtherfarthest, furthest
Much (প্রচুর)moremost
Little (অল্প)lessleast
 

Exercise

1. Underline the adverb in each of the following sentences.

i) They spoke loudly.
ii) Speak gently to the poor.
iii) I am highly impressed with her presentation.
iv) Earlier, they used to travel in their car.
v) She acted somewhat foolishly.
vi) The birds were chirping merrily.
vii) She looked quite nervous.
viii) We looked for her everywhere.
ix) Radha works diligently in order to get promoted.
x) I sometimes go for a walk in the park.

2. Make sentences of your own using the following adverbs.

i) Happily
ii) Surely
iii) Nicely
iv) Often
v) Secretly
vi) Quickly
vii) Definitely
viii) Seriously
ix) Well
x) Probably
xi) Completely
xii) Perhaps
xiii) Always

3. Find the adjective in the first sentence and fill the gap with the adverb.

(i) James is careful. He drives
(ii) The boy is loud. He shouts
(iii) Her English is perfect. She speaks English
(iv) Our mum was angry. She spoke to us
(v) My neighbor is a loudspeaker. He speaks
(vi) The painter is awful. He paints
(vii) Jane is a nice guitar player, He plays the guitar
(viii) The girl is very quiet. She often sneaks out of the house
(ix) She is a quiet girl. She does her job
(x) The exercise is simple. You have to put one word in each space
(xi) This exercise is easy. You can do it
(xii) Jim is a wonderful piano player. He plays the piano
(xiii) He is a good painter. He paints
(xiv) Joanne is happy. She smiles happily.
(xv) My neighbour is a careless driver. He drives

4. Choose the Adverbs that complete the sentences.

i) She worked very……………….. (hardly/hard).
ii) I am sorry to hear that Souvik spoke to you like that. He ……………………………. (normally/rarely) doesn’t talk that way.
iii) The conference began…………. (lately/late).
iv) Speak ……………………………. (slowly/slow) so that the other person can understand you.
v) My cold is…………. (very/much) better today.
vi) Anna can ……………………………. (often/rarely) be found in the library.
vii) The film is…………………(nearly/near) over.
viii) Ritika reached the cinema………. (first/firstly).
ix) Priya has not come to school. She is ……………………………. (probably/lately) ill.
x) Her attitude was………….. (extreme/extremely) rude.

5. Fill in the blanks with the correct degree of adverbs given in the brackets.

i) I speak English ________ (fluent) now than I did last year.
ii) That building stands _____________ (tall) than any other building in the city.
iii) Rehman writes _______ (well) of all in the class.
iv) I reached ______________ (early) than usual.
v) Of all the players in the team, Jay played ________ (skillful).
vi) The man ate his lunch _______________ (hungrily) as he had missed breakfast.
vii) Our team played _______ (bad) of all.
viii) She walked _______ (far) today than she did yesterday.
ix) My friend has moved _______ (near) to my house now.
x) They are running as _____________ (fast) as our school team.
xi) The new teacher talks _______ (gentle) to all her students.
xii) Could you please write ________________ (clearly)?
xiii) Airplanes can fly _____________ (high) than birds.

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